AGW Observer

Observations of anthropogenic global warming

Papers on global sea surface temperature observations

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on December 2, 2009

This is a list of papers on the sea surface temperature (SST) observations with emphasis on global analysis. The list is not complete, and will most likely be updated in the future in order to make it more thorough and more representative.

Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature – Barbosa & Andersen (2009) “Isolating long-term trend in sea surface temperature (SST) from El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) variability is fundamental for climate studies. In the present study, trend-empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, a robust space-time method for extracting trend patterns, is applied to isolate low-frequency variability from time series of SST anomalies for the 1982-2006 period. The first derived trend pattern reflects a systematic decrease in SST during the 25-year period in the equatorial Pacific and an increase in most of the global ocean.”

Inter-comparison and evaluation of global sea surface temperature products – Iwasaki et al. (2008) “To clarify the characteristics of global sea surface temperature (SST) products, we have compared the Reynolds product with four other products: the Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies (CAOS) SST, the microwave optimum interpolation (MWOI) SST, the merged satellite and in-situ data global daily (MGD) SST and the real time global (RTG) SST. Furthermore, we have validated these five products with SST data observed by moored buoys.”

Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature – Reynolds et al. (2007) “Two new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products have been developed using optimum interpolation (OI). The analyses have a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1 day. One product uses the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite SST data. The other uses AVHRR and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on the NASA Earth Observing System satellite SST data. Both products also use in situ data from ships and buoys and include a large-scale adjustment of satellite biases with respect to the in situ data.” [Full text]

OSTIA : An operational, high resolution, real time, global sea surface temperature analysis system – Stark et al. (2007 “A new global, operational, high-resolution, combined sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice analysis system (OSTIA) has been developed at the Met Office. The output is a daily, global coverage 1/20deg (~6 km) combined SST and sea ice concentration product, which is generated in near-real time.”

The Global Trend in Sea Surface Temperature from 20 Years of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Data – Good et al. (2007) “The trend in sea surface temperature has been determined from 20 yr of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder data (version 5). The data span the period from January 1985 to December 2004, inclusive. The linear trends were calculated to be 0.18° ± 0.04° and 0.17° ± 0.05°C decade−1 from daytime and nighttime data, respectively.” [Full text]

The Measurement of the Sea Surface Temperature by Satellites from 1991 to 2005 – O’Carroll et al. (2006) “A near-continuous series of global retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) has been made from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series of instruments from 1991 to 2005. To analyze possible long-term trends in the global or regional SST throughout the period daily anomalies are computed using a 1961–90 daily climatology, averaged into global monthly means, and plotted as a global time series. … The results of the study show the high accuracy of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) SSTs, but there are concerns with the NOAA-14 AVHRR data (1996–2000) being biased cold, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and the AMSR-E SSTs (version 4), which show unexplained biases. Since 1999 TMI SSTs appear to have a consistently warm (0.2 K) bias relative to the infrared sensors and HadISST1.” [Full text]

Improved Analyses of Changes and Uncertainties in Sea Surface Temperature Measured In Situ since the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The HadSST2 Dataset – Rayner et al. (2006) “A new flexible gridded dataset of sea surface temperature (SST) since 1850 is presented and its uncertainties are quantified. This analysis [the Second Hadley Centre Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadSST2)] is based on data contained within the recently created International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) database and so is superior in geographical coverage to previous datasets and has smaller uncertainties. … The linear warming between 1850 and 2004 was 0.52° ± 0.19°C (95% confidence interval) for the globe, 0.59° ± 0.20°C for the Northern Hemisphere, and 0.46° ± 0.29°C for the Southern Hemisphere. Decadally filtered differences for these regions over this period were 0.67° ± 0.04°C, 0.71° ± 0.06°C, and 0.64° ± 0.07°C.” [Full text]

Objective analyses of sea-surface temperature and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICOADS and the Kobe Collection – Ishii et al. (2005) “Data for the 20th century from the International Comprehensive Ocean and Atmosphere Data Set and the Kobe Collection have been used as input data for global objective analyses of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and other marine meteorological variables. This study seeks a better understanding of the historical marine meteorological data and an evaluation of the quality of the data in the Kobe Collection. … An SST analysis used widely in climatological studies was verified against HadISST from the Hadley Centre and an SST analysis derived from satellite and in situ observations.” [Full text]

Improved Extended Reconstruction of SST (1854–1997) – Smith & Reynolds (2004) “An improved SST reconstruction for the 1854–1997 period is developed. Compared to the version 1 analysis, in the western tropical Pacific, the tropical Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, more variance is resolved in the new analysis.” [Full text]

An Improved In Situ and Satellite SST Analysis for Climate – Reynolds et al. (2002) “A weekly 1° spatial resolution optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) analysis has been produced at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using both in situ and satellite data from November 1981 to the present.” [Full text]

Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses: Multiple Problems and Their Implications for Climate Analysis, Modeling, and Reanalysis – Hurrell & Trenberth (1999) “A comprehensive comparison is made among four sea surface temperature (SST) datasets: the optimum interpolation (OI) and the empirical orthogonal function reconstructed SST analyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Global Sea-Ice and SST dataset (GISST, version 2.3b) from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, and the optimal smoothing SST analysis from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO). Significant differences exist between the GISST and NCEP 1961–90 SST climatologies, especially in the marginal sea-ice zones and in regions of important small-scale features, such as the Gulf Stream, which are better resolved by the NCEP product. Significant differences also exist in the SST anomalies that relate strongly to the number of in situ observations available.” [Full text]

Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991 – Kaplan et al. (1998) “Global analyses of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1856 to 1991 are produced using three statistically based methods: optimal smoothing (OS), the Kaiman filter (KF) and optimal interpolation (OI). … The methods appear to reconstruct the major features of the global SST field from very sparse data. Comparison with other indications of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation cycle show that the analyses provide usable information on interannual variability as far back as the 1860s.” [Full text]

Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperature Trends – Cane et al. (1997) “An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system to an exogenous heating of the tropical atmosphere. This pattern, however, is not reproduced by the complex ocean-atmosphere circulation models currently used to simulate the climatic response to increased greenhouse gases. Its presence is likely to lessen the mean 20th-century global temperature change in model simulations.” [Full text]

A High-Resolution Global Sea Surface Temperature Climatology – Reynolds & Smith (1995) “In response to the development of a new higher-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), a new monthly 1° global sea surface temperature climatology was constructed from two intermediate climatologies: the 2° SST climatology presently used at NMC and a 1° SST climatology derived from the new analysis. … The use of 12 years of satellite SST retrievals makes this new climatology useful for many additional purposes because its effective resolution actually approaches 1° everywhere over the global ocean and because the mean SST values are more accurate south of 40°S than climatologies without these data.” [Full text]

Improved Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses Using Optimum Interpolation – Reynolds & Smith (1994) “The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1° grid.” [Full text]

A Global Monthly Sea Surface Temperature Climatology – Shea et al. (1992) “A new global 2°×2° monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, primarily derived from a 1950–1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), is presented and described. … This new SST climatology, which we call the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, is compared with the Alexander and Mobley (AM) SST climatology often used as a lower boundary condition by general circulation models. Significant differences are noted. Generally, the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere and in the subtropics of the Southern Hemisphere during the northern winter.” [Full text]

A Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis – Reynolds (1988) “A global monthly sea surface temperature analysis is described which uses real-lime in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite data. The method combines the advantages of both types of data: the ground truth of in situ data and the improved coverage of satellite data. The technique also effectively eliminates most of the bias differences between the in situ and satellite data. Examples of the method are shown to illustrate these points.” [Full text]

Monthly Average Sea–Surface Temperatures and Ice–Pack Limits on a 1° Global Grid – Alexander & Mobley (1976) “Climatological monthly ocean-surface temperatures obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and from Fleet Numerical Weather Central are merged and interpolated onto a 1° global grid.” [Full text]

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