AGW Observer

Observations of anthropogenic global warming

Papers on temperature of Mars

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on May 24, 2010

This is a list of papers on the temperature of planet Mars. The list is not complete, and will most likely be updated in the future in order to make it more thorough and more representative.

Mars Climate Sounder limb profile retrieval of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and dust and water ice opacity – Kleinböhl et al. (2009) “The Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the latest of a series of investigations devoted to improving the understanding of current Martian climate. MCS is a nine-channel passive midinfrared and far-infrared filter radiometer designed to measure thermal emission in limb and on-planet geometries from which vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, dust, and condensates can be retrieved. Here we describe the algorithm that is used to retrieve atmospheric profiles from MCS limb measurements for delivery to the Planetary Data System. … Temperature profiles are retrieved over a range from 5–10 to 80–90 km altitude with a typical altitude resolution of 4–6 km and a precision between 0.5 and 2 K over most of this altitude range. … Examples of temperature profiles as well as dust and water ice opacity profiles from the first year of the MCS mission are presented, and atmospheric features observed during periods employing different MCS operational modes are described. An intercomparison with historical temperature measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor mission shows good agreement.”

Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars – Fenton et al. (2007) “Here we present predictions from a Mars general circulation model, indicating that the observed interannual albedo alterations strongly influence the martian environment. … The simulations also predict a net annual global warming of surface air temperatures by 0.65 K, enhancing dust lifting by increasing the likelihood of dust devil generation.” [Full text]

Polar warming in the Mars thermosphere: Seasonal variations owing to changing insolation and dust distributions – Bougher et al. (2006) “Warming of the martian lower thermosphere (100–130 km) at north polar latitudes near the perihelion/winter solstice (Ls = 270) was recently observed. No analogous warming has been observed within the south polar thermosphere during its aphelion/winter season (Ls ∼ 90). … The stronger interhemispheric circulation during northern winter is clearly driven by stronger insolation and dust heating near perihelion, resulting in subsidence and warmer temperatures in the northern polar night.” [Full text]

Interannual variability in TES atmospheric observations of Mars during 1999–2003 – Smith (2004) “We use infrared spectra returned by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) to retrieve atmospheric and surface temperature, dust and water ice aerosol optical depth, and water vapor column abundance. The data presented here span more than two martian years (Mars Year 24, Ls=104°, 1 March 1999 to Mars Year 26, Ls=180°, 4 May 2003). … We find that the perihelion season (Ls=180°–360°) is relatively warm, dusty, free of water ice clouds, and shows a relatively high degree of interannual variability in dust optical depth and atmospheric temperature. On the other hand, the aphelion season (Ls=0°–180°) is relatively cool, cloudy, free of dust, and shows a low degree of interannual variability. … These dust storms increase albedo through deposition of bright dust on the surface causing cooler daytime surface and atmospheric temperatures well after dust optical depth returns to prestorm values.” [Full text]

An assessment of the global, seasonal, and interannual spacecraft record of Martian climate in the thermal infrared – Liu et al. (2003) “Intercomparison of thermal infrared data collected by Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is presented with a specific focus on air temperatures, dust opacities, and water ice opacities. … The annual cycle consistently shows a strong asymmetry about the equinoxes, with northern spring and summer exhibiting relatively low temperatures, very high year-to-year repeatability, and essentially no short-term (tens of days) variability. The globally averaged Martian nighttime air temperatures close annually to within a Kelvin during northern spring and summer. Daytime temperatures show more variability (3–6 K). The difference in repeatability of daytime versus nighttime temperatures is not understood. Viking and MGS air temperatures are essentially indistinguishable for this period, suggesting that the Viking and MGS eras are characterized by essentially the same climatic state.” [Full text]

An intercomparison of ground-based millimeter, MGS TES, and Viking atmospheric temperature measurements: Seasonal and interannual variability of temperatures and dust loading in the global Mars atmosphere – Clancy et al. (2000) “Much colder (10–20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods (Ls =200°–330°), consistent with the much (2 to 8 times) lower global dust loading of the atmosphere during the 1997 perihelion dust storm season versus the Viking period of the 1977a,b storms.” [Full text]

The Martian Atmosphere During the Viking Mission, I: Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Temperatures Revisited – Wilson & Richardson (2000) “The Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper 15-μm channel brightness temperature observations (IRTM T15) provide extensive spatial and temporal coverage of martian atmospheric temperatures on diurnal to seasonal time scales. … Our re-examination of the IRTM data indicates that the 15-μm channel was additionally sensitive to surface radiance so that air temperature determinations (nominal T15) are significantly biased when the thermal contrast between the surface and atmosphere is large. … A major consequence of this work is the improved definition of the diurnal, latitudinal, and seasonal variation of martian atmosphere temperatures during the Viking mission. An accounting for the surface temperature bias resolves much of the discrepancy between IRTM and corresponding microwave observations, indicating that there is relatively little interannual variability in global temperatures during the aphelion season.” [Full text]

Global changes in the 0–70 km thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere derived from 1975 to 1989 microwave CO spectra – Clancy et al. (1990) “Assuming a constant CO mixing ratio, we derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the May 1988 and January 1989 12CO spectra which are quite similar to the temperature profile found for the November 1988 period. … The March-April 1980 and January 1982 profiles, in particular, are 20–40 K cooler than the Viking profile for altitudes above 10 km.”

Mars South Polar Spring and Summer Temperatures: A Residual CO2 Frost – Kieffer (1979) “The Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) has measured reflected and emitted energy over Mars south polar cap throughout the martian spring and summer. During these 1976–1977 observations the polar cap displayed complex spatial, spectral, and temporal variations.”

Martian Surface Temperatures – Morrison (1968) “The 8- to 13-μ thermal scans made of Mars in 1954 by Sinton and Strong are the best source of information available on the distribution of temperature over the disk. I have analyzed all these scans, normalizing to the center-of-disk temperature in the light areas of 290° K found by Sinton and Strong. The observed equatorial temperature distribution between sunrise and midafternoon can be reproduced by a solution of the standard heat-conduction equation for a homogeneous subsurface when current values for the planetary albedo and emissivity are employed. The temperature range in the bright areas is from 303 to 180° K with a thermal inertia of 0.004 to 0.005 cal cm-2 sec deg-1 the thermal inertia of the dark areas is slightly larger. Mean particle sizes for the two areas are estimated from the thermal conductivities to be 20 to 40 μ and 100 to 300 μ, respectively. The latitudinal temperature gradient is in accord with the above model for northern latitudes, but in the south the temperatures are depressed, consistent with the presence of a polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide. At all latitudes, a major fraction of the atmospheric water vapor is expected to condense at night. The radio brightness temperatures observed at centimeter wavelengths are also consistent with these thermal properties.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

Disk Temperatures of Mercury and Mars at 3.4 MM – Epstein (1966) “Observations of Mercury and Mars were made in April, 1965, at 3.4 mm (88 GHz) with the 15-foot antenna of Aerospace Corporation’s Space Radio Systems Facility. … Mars was observed on the nights of April 25, 26, and 28. …the corresponding black-body disk-temperature and estimated total standard error were 190° ± 40° K.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

Observed millimeter wavelength brightness temperatures of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn – Tolbert (1966) “Analyses of observations of 35, 70, and 94 Gc radiation from Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn made with a 16-ft antenna yield brightness temperatures for Mars of 230(+42, -42) °K and 240(+72, -48) °K at 35 and 94 Gc, respectively;…” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

Theoretical Estimates of the Average Surface Temperature on Mars – Ohring et al. (1962) “Estimates of the average surface temperature on Mars are derived from radiative equilibrium considerations. A minimum possible surface temperature is estimated by computing the radiative equilibrium temperature that the Martian surface would have if the planet had no atmosphere. An estimate of the maximum possible value of the average surface temperature is obtained by computing the surface temperature that would result from a maximum greenhouse model. The computations indicate that the average surface temperature is in the range 219K to 233K. Comparisons of the theoretical computations with indications of surface temperature obtained from thermal emission observations are found to be in reasonable agreement.” [Full text]

The Surface-Temperature Climate of Mars – Gifford (1956) “The Lowell Observatory radiometric measurements of Martian surface temperatures are analyzed, and surface-temperature climatological properties of Mars are obtained. Annual and diurnal temperature variations and seasonal isotherm maps are displayed and discussed.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

Temperature measurements on the planet Mars, 1926 – Coblentz (1927) Introduces new measurements from 1926. “…the following tentative estimates of planetary surface temperatures are given: as viewed on the central meridian, the south polar region -10° to +10° C; south temperate zone 20° to 25° C (clouds -10° C); center of disc 20° to 30° C; north temperate zone 0° to 20° C; north polar region -25° to -40° C;…” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page] [Another paper on the 1926 observations: Temperatures of Mars, 1926, as derived from the Water-Cell Transmissions – Coblentz et al. (1927)]

The Diurnal Maximum of Temperature on Mars – Pettit & Nicholson (1925) A clarification of their measurements published originally in 1924. [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

Temperature estimates of the planet Mars – Coblentz (1925) “The temperature which the surface of Mars attains when exposed to solar radiation is a much debated question. Some of the older calculations, for example Poynting’s, indicated a temperature much below o° C. More recently Lowell introduced factors previously neglected, and calculated temperatures considerably above o° C. (up to 9° C). … The object of the present paper is to summarize the radiometric observations obtained on Mars in 1924; and to estimate the surface temperature as deduced by various methods of calculating the data. … The temperatures of the bright areasrange from -10° C. to +5° C. The temperatures of the dark areas, range from 10° C. to 20° C. or even higher. The average temperature of the apparent center of the disk, including the bright and the dark areas, was 14° C.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

The Temperature of Mars – Chase (1924) “IN a recent paper (Pub. Ast. Soc. of the Pacific), Nicholson and Pettit calculate the temperature of the planet Mars, based on their radiation measures made at Mount Wilson. Most confidence is placed on measures made in the region 8 to 14µ, by the use of filter screens, and an emissivity of unity is assumed for all wave-lengths. However, Mars, being probably composed of material not unlike the earth, would radiate more like sand or quartz than like a black body, and it can be calculated from curves given by Wood (“Physical Optics”) and data given by Rosenthal (Wied. Ann. 68, p. 783), that the average ratio of the emissivity of quartz to that of a black body in the region 8 to 14µ, is 0.819. The values of the emissivity of quartz given are far below that of a black body between 8 and 10 µ they are nearly the same from 10 to 14µ the average ratio is taken.”

The Temperature of Mars – Coblentz (1924)

Measurements of the radiation from the planet Mars – Pettit & Nicholson (1924) “We may estimate the temperature of a point on Mars by two methods. First we may attempt to make the data in Table I fit ablack body radiation curve after applying the atmospheric transmission to it, or we may employ the principle of the total radiation formula (fourth power law). … From these results we may conclude that the radiation temperature of a point in the tropics at noon-day on Mars is a little above freezing and that the mean temperature of the pole cap is about -70° C.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page] [same article in journal PASP]

Present Surface Temperatures of Mars, Venus and Mercury – Corrigan (1908) “Therefore, the surface temperatures are: for Mars 5640°/6800° x 512° = 424°; or -36° Fahrenheit; for Venus 7120°/6800° x 512° = 536°; or +76° Fahrenheit, and for Mercury 7934°/6800° x 512° = 597°; or 137° Fahrenheit. … These are the temperatures due to the internal planetary heat alone, the augmentation caused by thermal radiation from the Sun being an independent quantity the maximum value whereof may be taken at about 70° F for the Earth, which would give, as the greatest temperature on the surface exposed to direct solar heat, the maximum intrinsic temperature 52° + the solar augmentation 70°, or 122° F, which is about greatest temperature (in the shade) recorded in the hottest regions of our globe. The augmentation in the case of each of the other three planets is, obviously, inversely proportional to the square of its relative distance from the Sun, so that for Mars the value to be added to the intrinsic temperature (-36°) aforesaid is + 76° F, making the actual surface temperature 0° Fahrenheit, from which determination it may be inferred that the climate of Mars, at best, is one of Arctic severity or that of an elevated plateau at an altitude of four, or five miles above sea-level, with respect to temperature compared with terrestrial conditions in this regard, and that the types of life thereon (if any there be) must correspond to those existing upon the Earth in similar situations.” [Full text is freely available in the abstract page]

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