AGW Observer

Observations of anthropogenic global warming

Climate related papers in Journal of the Optical Society of America

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on October 12, 2016


Journal of the Optical Society of America (JOSA) was published between 1917 and 1983. After that it continued as two journals: JOSA A: Optics and Image Science and JOSA B: Optical Physics. This selection contains 225 climate related papers published in JOSA. There are not many papers related directly to climate, but most of the papers below are studying the infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases.

Here are the selected papers:

Feature Issue on Meteorological Optics: Foreword (Bohren et al. 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-12-1621

Inversion of superior mirage data to compute temperature profiles (Lehn, 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-12-1622

Colors of snow, frozen waterfalls, and icebergs (Bohren, 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-12-1646

Rainfall-induced optical phase fluctuations in the atmosphere (Yura et al. 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-11-1574

Telluric spectra from 4690 to 5525 Å in a humid atmosphere (Rajaratnam & Lua, 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-8-999

Experimental Doppler-limited spectra of the ν2 bands of H216O, H217O, H218O, and HDO by Fourier-transform spectroscopy: secondary wave-number standards between 1066 and 2296 cm−1 (Guelachvili, 1983) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-73-2-137

Radiative properties of optically anisotropic spheres and their climatic implications (Fymat, 1982) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-72-10-1307

Spatial-frequency- and wavelength-dependent effects of aerosols on the atmospheric modulation transfer function (Kopeika, 1982) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-72-8-1092

Spatial-frequency dependence of scattered background light: The atmospheric modulation transfer function resulting from aerosols (Kopeika, 1982) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-72-5-548

Maximum-likelihood optimization of a Fabry–Perot interferometer for thermospheric temperature and wind measurements (Jahn et al. 1982) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-72-3-386

Wavelength variation of visible and near-infrared resolution through the atmosphere: dependence on aerosol and meteorological conditions (Kopeika et al. 1981) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-71-7-892

Refractive-index and absorption fluctuations in the infrared caused by temperature, humidity, and pressure fluctuations (Hill et al. 1980) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-70-10-1192

Vertical path atmospheric MTF measurements (Walters et al. 1979) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-69-6-828

Single-particle correlation techniques for remote measurement of wind speed: Aerosol condition and measurement rate (Bartlett & She, 1979) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-69-3-455

Modified spectrum of atmospheric temperature fluctuations and its application to optical propagation (Hill & Clifford, 1978) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-68-7-892

Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 μm water vapor bands (Mathai et al. 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-11-1532

Very-high-resolution far-infrared measurements of atmospheric emission from aircraft (Carli et al. 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-7-917

Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of the atmosphere (Harries, 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-7-880

Laws of optics at high irradiance. II. Experiments with SF6 at normal incidence (Thomason & Macomber, 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-6-734

Infrared absorption coefficient of H2SO4 vapor from 1190 to 1260 cm−1 (Majkowski, 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-5-624

Optical constants of water in the infrared: Influence of temperature (Pinkley et al. 1977) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-67-4-494

9.6 μm ozone band (ν3) intensity (Bartman et al. 1976) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-66-8-860

Optical properties of sea water in the infrared (Pinkley & Willims, 1976) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-66-6-554

Raman-scattering cross sections for water vapor (Penney & Lapp, 1976) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-66-5-422

The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K (Pinkley & Willims, 1976) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-66-2-122

High-resolution methane ν3-band spectra using a stabilized tunable difference-frequency laser system (Pine, 1976) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-66-2-97

Use of rainfall-induced optical scintillations to measure path-averaged rain parameters (Wang & Clifford, 1975) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-65-8-927

6.3 μm water-vapor-band derivatives (Hendrickson et al. 1974) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-64-8-1119

Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance (Broersma & Walls, 1974) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-64-8-1111

Absolute rotational Raman cross sections for N2, O2, and CO2 (Penney et al. 1974) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-64-5-712

Scattering-independent determination of the thermal-emission profile of a planetary atmosphere and related radiative-equilibrium considerations (Fymat, 1974) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-64-2-145

Broadening of infrared absorption lines at reduced temperatures, III. Nitrous oxide (Tubbs & Williams, 1973) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-63-7-859

Balloon-borne infrared measurements of the vertical distribution of N2O in the atmosphere (Goldman et al. 1973) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-63-7-843

Influence of Temperature on the Spectrum of Water (Hale et al. 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-9-1103

Measurements of Turbulence Profiles in the Troposphere (Bufton et al. 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-9-1068

Irradiance Fluctuations in Optical Transmission through the Atmosphere (Lawrence, 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-5-701

Intensity–Half-Width Products for Seven Lines in the 6.3-μm Water-Vapor Band (Fridovich & Kinard, 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-4-542

Broadening of Infrared Absorption Lines at Reduced Temperatures, II. Carbon Monoxide in an Atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide (Tubbs & Williams, 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-3-423

Broadening of Infrared Absorption Lines at Reduced Temperatures: Carbon Dioxide (Tubbs & Williams, 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-2-284

Irradiance Fluctuations in Optical Transmission through the Atmosphere (Torrieri & Taylor, 1972) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-62-1-145

Lambert Absorption Coefficients of Water in the Infrared (Robertson & Williams, 1971) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-61-10-1316

Optical Constants of Water in the Infrared (Rusk et al. 1971) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-61-7-895

Absorption of Infrared Radiant Energy by CO2 and H2O, V. Absorption by CO2 between 1100 and 1835 cm−1 (9.1–5.5 μm) (Burch & Gryvnak, 1971) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-61-4-499

Dispersion of Carbon Dioxide (Old et al. 1971) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-61-1-89

Abundance of N2O in the Atmosphere between 4.5 and 13.5 km (Goldman et al. 1970) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-60-11-1466

Line Strengths in the ν3 Band of Water Vapor (Ben-Aryeh, 1970) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-60-4-570

Infrared Spectral Absorption Coefficients for Water Vapor (Heroet & Muiriiead, 1970) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-60-2-180

Foreign-Gas Broadening of HF by CO2 (Shaw & Lovell, 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-12-1598

Strengths of 31 Water-Vapor Lines between 1617 and 1429 cm−1 (Krakow & Healy, 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-11-1490

Refractive Index of Water in the Infrared (Querry et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-10-1299

Spectral Emissivity of the 3.3-μ Band of Methane at Elevated Temperatures (Goldman et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-9-1218

Presence of HNO3 in the Upper Atmosphere (Murcray et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-9-1131

Strengths of Twenty Lines in the ν3 Band of Water Vapor (Babrov & Healy, 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-6-779

Spectral Emissivity of NO in the Infrared (Oppenheim et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-6-734

Absorption of Infrared Radiant Energy by CO2 and H2O. IV. Shapes of Collision-Broadened CO2 Lines (Burch et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-3-267

Infrared Absorptance of Ammonia—20 to 35 Microns (Walsh, 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-3-261

Positions, Intensities, and Widths of Water-Vapor Lines between 475 and 692 cm−1 (Izatt et al. 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-1-19

Model for a Clear Atmosphere (Gordon, 1969) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-59-1-14

Determination of the Temperature Profile in an Atmosphere from its Outgoing Radiance (Chahine, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-12-1634

Absorption of Infrared Radiant Energy by CO2 and H2O. III. Absorption by H2O between 0.5 and 36 cm−1 (278 μ−2 cm) (Burch, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-10-1383

Visual Haze Observed at High Altitudes (Clark, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-7-1003

Radiance of Sea and Sky in the Infrared Window 800–1200 cm−1 (Saunders, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-5-645

Determination of CO2 Line Parameters Using a CO2–N2–He Laser (Oppenheim & Devir, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-4-585

Absorption of Infrared Radiation by CO2 and H2O. II. Absorption by CO2 between 8000 and 10 000 cm−1 (1–1.25 Microns) (Burch et al. 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-3-335

Low-Resolution Determination of the Strength of the 667-cm−1 CO2 Band (Harward & Patty, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-2-188

Strengths of Forty-two Lines in the ν1 and ν3 Bands of Water Vapor (Babrov & Casden, 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-2-179

Photoionization and Absorption Coefficients of N2O (Cook et al. 1968) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-58-1-129

Influence of Wind and Cloudiness on Terrestrial Scintillation (Paperlein, 1967) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-57-9-1157

Integrated Intensity of 3.3-μ Band of Methane (Finkman et al. 1967) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-57-9-1130

Absorption of Infrared Radiation by CO2 and H2O. Experimental Techniques (Burch et al. 1967) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-57-7-885

Self-Broadening Effects in the Infrared Bands of Gases (Anderson et al. 1967) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-57-2-240

High-Temperature Spectral Emissivities and Total Intensities of the 15-μ Band System of CO2 (Ludwig et al. 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-12-1685

Indirect Method for Measuring Spectral Linewidth, with Application to N2O (Oppenheim & Goldman, 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-5-675

Total Absorption Cross Sections of CO and CO2 in the Region 550–200 Å (Cairns & Samson, 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-4-526

Infrared Spectral Reflectance of Frost (Keegan & Weidner, 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-4-523_1

Spectroradiometric and Colorimetric Characteristics of Daylight in the Southern Hemisphere: Pretoria, South Africa (Winch et al. 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-4-456

Transmittance of Water Vapor—14 to 20 Microns (Stauffer & Walsh, 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-3-401

Spectral-Emissivity Measurements of the 4.3-μ CO2 Band between 2650° and 3000°K (Ferriso et al. 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-2-171

Far-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Water (Draegert et al. 1966) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-56-1-64

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (Kyle et al. 1965) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-55-11-1421

Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution of Sunlight (Searle & Hirt, 1965) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-55-11-1413

Daylight and Correlated Color Temperature (Wright, 1965) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-55-6-741

Absorption of 3.39-Micron Helium–Neon Laser Emission by Methane in the Atmosphere (Edwards & Burch, 1965) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-55-2-174

Spectral Energy Distribution of Daylight (Condit & Grum, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-7-937

Infrared Emissivity of Carbon Dioxide (2.7-μ Band) (Malkmus, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-6-751

Spectral Emissivities and Integrated Intensities of the 2.7- μ CO2 Band between 1200° and 1800°K (Ferriso & Ludwig, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-5-657

Abundance of Methane in the Earth’s Atmosphere (Fink et al. 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-472

Emissivity of Carbon Dioxide at 4.3 μ (Davies, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-467

Absorption Cross Sections of Argon and Methane between 600 and 170 Å (Rustgi, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-4-464

Interpretation of Infrared Spectral Absorptance Measurements and Calculations for HCl (Malkmus et al. 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-3-422

Errors in Spectral Absorption Measurements Due to Absorbing Species in the Atmosphere (Maclay & Babrov, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-3-301

Computed Intensity and Polarization of Light Scattered Outwards from the Earth and an Overlying Aerosol (Fraser, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-2-157

Variation of the Infrared Solar Spectrum between 2800 and 5100 cm−1 with Altitude (Murcray et al. 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-1-23

Pure Rotational Absorption Spectrum of Hydrogen Fluoride Vapor between 22 and 250 μ (Rothschild, 1964) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-1-20

Broadening of the ν3 Lines of HCN Due to Argon, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrogen Chloride (Thibault et al. 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-11-1255

The Radiance of the Earth and its Atmosphere Measured by Interference Spectroscopy (Persky & Zachor, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-9-AD9_13

Infrared Emissivity of Carbon Dioxide (4.3-μ Band) (Malkmus, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-8-951

Experimental and Theoretical Infrared Spectral Absorptance of HCl at Various Temperatures (Babrov, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-8-945

Cirrus Infrared Reflection Measurements (McDonald & Deltenre, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-7-860

Study of the Total Absorptance near 4.5 μ by Two Samples of N2O as Their Total Pressures and N2O Concentrations Were Independently Varied (Abesl & Shaw, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-7-856

On the Atmospheric Infrared Continuum (Bignell et al. 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-4-466

Statistical Model Applied to the Region of the ν3 Fundamental of CO2 at 1200°K (Oppenheim & Ben-Aryeh, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-3-344

A Weak Telluric Band of Carbon Dioxide (Diaz, 1963) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-53-1-203

Predicting the Distribution of Infrared Radiation from the Clear Sky (Bennett & Bennett, 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-11-1305_1

Infrared Spectrum of Hydrogen Fluoride: Line Positions and Line Shapes. Part II. Treatment of Data and Results (Herget et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-10-1113

Infrared Spectrum of Hydrogen Fluoride: Line Positions and Line Shapes. Part I. Experimental Details (Herndon et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-10-1108

Absorption Bands of Carbon Dioxide from 2.8–4.2 μ (Plyler et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-9-1017

Atmospheric Scattering Coefficients in the Visible and Infrared Regions (Knestrick et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-9-1010

Abundance of N2O in the Atmosphere (Rank et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-8-858

Distribution of Irradiance in Haze and Fog (Eldridge & Johnson, 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-7-787

Spectral Radiance of Sky and Terrain at Wavelengths between 1 and 20 μ. III. Terrain Measurements (Eisner et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-2-201

Transmission and Scattering Properties of a Nevada Desert Atmosphere under Cloudy Conditions (Gibbons et al. 1962) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-52-1-38

Some Spectral Emissivities of Water Vapor in the 2.7-μ Region (Tourin, 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-11-1225

Highly Precise Wavelengths in the Infrared. II. HCN, N2O, and CO (Rank et al. 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-9-929

Measurement of Atmospheric Transmissivity using Backscattered Light from a Pulsed Light Beam (Horman, 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-6-681

Transmission and Scattering Properties of a Nevada Desert Atmosphere (Gibbons et al. 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-6-633

Evaluation of Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Size Distribution from Scattering Measurements in the Visible and Infrared (Curcio, 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-5-548

Study of 1.4-μ, 1.9-μ, and 6.3-μ Water Vapor Bands at High Altitudes (Murcray et al. 1961) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-51-2-186

Spectral Radiance of Sky and Terrain at Wavelengths between 1 and 20 Microns. II. Sky Measurements (Bell et al. 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-12-1313

Infrared Solar Spectroscopy at the Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) (Delbouille & Migeotte, 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-12-1305

Near Infrared Atmospheric Transmission to Solar Radiation (Gates, 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-12-1299

Vibration-Rotation Bands of N2O (Tidwell et al. 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-12-1243

Experimental Transmission Functions for the Pure Rotation Band of Water Vapor (Palmer, 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-12-1232

Absorption by Infrared Bands of Carbon Dioxide Gas at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures (Edwards, 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-6-617

Atmospheric Absorptions in the Near Infrared at High Altitudes (Murcray et al. 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-2-107

Distribution of Infrared Radiance over a Clear Sky (Bennett et al. 1960) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-50-2-100

Inference of Atmospheric Structure from Remote Radiation Measurements (Kaplan, 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-10-1004

Experimental Technique for Studying Atmospheric Turbulence (Wolfe et al. 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-8-829

Spectral Emissivity of Carbon Dioxide from 1800–2500 cm−1 (Plass, 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-8-821

Abundance of Nitrous Oxide in Ground-Level Air (Birkeland & Shaw, 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-6-637

Solar Spectral Irradiance and Vertical Atmospheric Attenuation in the Visible and Ultraviolet (Dunkelman & Scolnik, 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-4-356

Far Infrared Spectra of H2O and H2S Taken with an Interferometric Spectrograph (Vanasse et al. 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-3-309

Wavelength Calibrations in Infrared. Part II. Use of Atomic Lines from a Hollow Cathode Discharge Tube with Neon as Carrier Gas (Rao et al. 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-3-221

Wavelength Calibrations in Infrared. Part I. Some Problems Concerning the Determination of Absolute Positions of Infrared Lines (Rao et al. 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-3-216

Pressure Modulation of Infrared Absorption.* II. Individual Lines in Vibration-Rotation Bands (Gilfert & Williams, 1959) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-3-212

Temperature Dependence of the Rayleigh Scattering Coefficient in the Atmosphere (Deirmendjian, 1958) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-48-12-1018_1

Near Infrared Solar Radiation Measurements by Balloon to an Altitude of 100 000 Feet (Gates et al. 1958) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-48-12-1010

Pressure Modulation of Infrared Absorption.* I. Entire Vibration-Rotation Bands (Gilfert & Williams, 1958) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-48-11-765

Correlation of Atmospheric Transmission with Backscattering (Curcio & Knestrick, 1958) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-48-10-686

Diffuse Transmission through Real Atmospheres (Eldridge & Johnson, 1958) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-48-7-463

Long Path Water Vapor Spectra with Pressure Broadening. II. 29 μ to 40 μ (Palmer, 1957) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-11-1028

Long Path Water Vapor Spectra with Pressure Broadening. I. 20 μ to 31.7 μ (Palmer, 1957) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-11-1024

Some Comments on Two Articles by Taylor and Yates (Birkeland et al. 1957) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-5-441

Infrared Emission Spectra of the Atmosphere between 14.5 μ and 22.5 μ (Burch & Shaw, 1957) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-3-227

Atmospheric Transmission in the Infrared (Taylor & Yates, 1957) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-3-223

Infrared Evidence for Atmospheric Ozone at Sea Level (Taylor & Yates, 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-11-998

Spectral Diffuse Reflectance of Desert Surfaces (Ashburn & Weldon, 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-8-583

Atmospheric Turbidity and the Transmission of Ultraviolet Sunlight (Deirmendjian & Sekera, 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-8-565

Thermal Radiation from the Atmosphere (Sloan et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-7-543

Infrared Transmission of Synthetic Atmospheres.* V. Absorption Laws for Overlapping Bands (Burch et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-6-452

Infrared Evidence for the Presence of Ozone in the Lower Atmosphere (Burch, 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-5-360

Infrared Transmission of Synthetic Atmospheres.* IV. Application of Theoretical Band Models (Howard et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-5-334

Infrared Transmission of Synthetic Atmospheres.* III. Absorption by Water Vapor (Howard et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-4-242

Infrared Transmission of Synthetic Atmospheres.* II. Absorption by Carbon Dioxide (Howard et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-4-237

Infrared Transmission of Synthetic Atmospheres.* I. Instrumentation (Howard et al. 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-3-186

Horizontal Atmospheric Transmittance Measurements with a Thallous Sulfide Cell Transmissometer (Pearson & Boettner, 1956) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-46-1-54

Results of a Recent Attempt to Record the Solar Spectrum in the Region of 900–3000 A (Jursa et al. 1955) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-45-12-1085_1

Observations of Solar and Lunar Radiation at 1.5 Millimeters (Sinton, 1955) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-45-11-975

Infrared Emission Spectrum of the Atmosphere (Sloan et al. 1955) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-45-6-455

Horizontal Attenuation of Ultraviolet Light by the Lower Atmosphere (Baum & Dunkelman, 1955) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-45-3-166

Infrared Absorption of Liquid Water from 2 to 42 Microns (Plyler & Acquista, 1954) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-44-6-505

Measurements of Sky Luminance Distribution at Stockholm (Hopkinson, 1954) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-44-6-455

Investigations of Atmospheric CO at the Jungfraujoch (Benesch et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1119

The Infrared Spectra of Propylene and Propylene-d6 (Lord & Venkateswarlu, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1079

Vibrational Spectra and Calculated Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane and Pentachloroethane (Nielsen et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1071

The Forbidden Transition ν2 in the Infrared Spectrum of Methane (Burgess et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1058

Absorption Line Width in the Infrared Spectrum of the Ammonia Molecule (Adel, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1053

The Spectrum of Nitrogen Dioxide in the 1.4–3.4μ Region and the Vibrational and Rotational Constants of the NO2 Molecule (Moore, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1045

Rotation-Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing PathsXI. The Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide (Co2) below 1.25μ (Herzberg & Herzberg, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1037

The Vertical Distribution of Nitrous Oxide and Methane in the Earth’s Atmosphere (Goldberg & Müller, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-11-1033

The Elimination of Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption in the Perkin-Elmer Infrared Spectrometer (Fraser, 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-10-929

Fine Structure of the 2ν3 Band of Methane (Rank et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-8-707

Atmospheric Attenuation at Khartoum, Sudan (Beck et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-5-405

An Experimental Study of Atmospheric Transmission (Curcio et al. 1953) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-43-2-97

Near-Infrared Absorption by Entire Bands of Carbon Dioxide (Howard & Chapman, 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-11-856

The Influence of Field of View on Measurements of Atmospheric Transmission (Stewart & Curcio, 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-11-801

A Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Transmission Functions from Laboratory Absorption Measurements (Plass, 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-9-677

The Luminous Directional Reflectance of Snow (Middleton & Mungall, 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-8-572

The Pressure Dependence of the Absorption by Entire Bands of Water Vapor in the Near Infrared (Howard & Chapman, 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-6-423

Measurements of the Brightness of the Twilight Sky (Koomen et al. 1952) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-5-353

Refractive Indices of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide at Low Pressure (Newbound, 1949) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-39-10-835

Night Sky Brightness Measurements in Latitudes below 45° (Hulburt, 1949) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-39-3-211

Elimination of Water Vapor in Infra-Red Spectrometers (Giguère & Badger, 1948) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-38-11-987

An Estimate of Transparency of the Atmospheric Window 16 Mu to 24 Mu (Adel, 1947) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-37-10-769

The Upper Atmosphere of the Earth (Hulburt, 1947) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-37-6-405

Brightness and Polarization of the Daylight Sky at Various Altitudes above Sea Level (Tousey & Hulburt, 1947) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-37-2-78

A Spectrophotometer for the Determination of the Water Vapor in a Vertical Column of the Atmosphere (Foster & Foskett, 1945) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-35-9-601

The Determination of the Concentration of Benzene and Toluene in Air by a Spectroscopic Method (Cole, 1942) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-32-5-304

The “Diffusing Effect” of Fog (Middleton, 1942) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-32-3-139

Optics of Atmospheric Haze (Hulburt, 1941) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-31-7-467

The Distribution of Energy in the Visible Spectrum of Daylight (Taylor & Kerr, 1941) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-31-1-3

The Transmission of Infra-Red Light by Fog (Sanderson, 1940) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-30-9-405

Transmission of Infra-Red Radiation Through Fog (Smith & Hayes, 1940) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-30-8-332

An Estimate of the Absorption of Air in the Extreme Ultraviolet (Schneider, 1940) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-30-3-128

Laboratory Analysis of the Selective Absorption of Light by Sea Water (Clarke & James, 1939) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-29-2-43

The Brightness of the Twilight Sky and the Density and Temperature of the Atmosphere (Hulburt, 1938) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-28-7-227

The Reflection and Absorption of Daylight at the Surface of the Ocean (Powell & Clarke, 1936) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-26-3-111

A Photoelectric Method of Measuring the Transparency of the Lower Atmosphere (Byram, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-12-393

Visibility Photometers for Measuring Atmospheric Transparency (Byram, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-12-388

Light Absorption and Distribution of Atmospheric Ozone1,2 (Ladenburg, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-9-259

Light Absorption in the Atmosphere and Its Photochemistry (Wulf, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-8-231

Attenuation of Light in the Lower Atmosphere (Hulburt, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-5-125

The Penetration of the Red, Green and Violet Components of Daylight into Atlantic Waters (Oster & Clarke, 1935) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-25-3-84

Absorption of Light by Sea Water (Stephenson, 1934) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-24-8-220

The Absorption of Ultraviolet and Visible Light by Water (Dawson & Hulburt, 1934) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-24-7-175

Intensity and Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation in New Orleans (Laurens & Mayerson, 1933) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-23-4-133

The Ultraviolet Transmission Coefficient of the Earth’s Atmosphere (Rockwood & Sawyer, 1932) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-22-10-513

On the Penetration of Daylight into the Sea (Hulburt, 1932) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-22-7-408

The Zinc Sulphide Method of Measuring Ultraviolet Radiation and the Results of Three Years’ Observations on Baltimore Sunshine (Clark, 1931) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-21-4-240

Ultraviolet Radiation from the Sun and Heated Tungsten (Forsythe & Christison, 1930) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-20-7-396

A Comparison of Laboratory and Solar Wave Lengths (Burns, 1930) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-20-4-212

On the Efficient Utilization of Solar Energy (Goddard, 1929) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-19-1-42

Spectral Reflectances of Common Materials in the Ultraviolet Region (Luckiesh, 1929) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-19-1-1

The Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Reflectivities of Snow, Sand and Other Substances (Hulburt, 1928) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-17-1-23

The Infrared Absorption Spectra of Acetylene, Ethylene and Ethane (Levin & Meyer, 1928) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-16-3-137

The Near Infrared Absorption Spectra of Liquid Benzene and Toluene (Barnes & Fulweiler, 1927) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-15-6-331

On the Infrared Absorption Spectra of Several Gases (Meyer et al. 1927) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-15-5-257

Solarimeters and Solarigraphs Simple Instruments for Direct Readings of Solar Radiation Intensity from Sun and Sky (Gorczyński, 1927) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-14-2-149

Atmospheric Absorption and Transmission in Searchlight Practice (Langer, 1926) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-12-4-359

Meteorological Instruments and Apparatus Employed by the United States Weather Bureau (Covert, 1925) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-10-3-299

On a Simple Method of Recording the Total and Partial Intensities of Solar Radiation (Gorczyński, 1924) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-9-4-455

The Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Carbon Monoxide (Lowry, 1924) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-8-5-647

The Effect of the Diffusion and Absorption by the Atmosphere on Signal Lights and Projectors (Karrer, 1923) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-7-11-943

Recent Measurements of Stellar and Planetary Radiation (Coblentz, 1922) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-6-10-1016

The Measurement of Solar, Sky, Nocturnal and Stellar Radiation (Coblentz, 1921) https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-5-3-269

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New research – cryosphere (October 11, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on October 11, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on cryosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

Grounding line retreat of Pope, Smith, and Kohler Glaciers, West Antarctica, measured with Sentinel-1a radar interferometry data (Scheuchl et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069287/abstract

Abstract: We employ Sentinel-1a C band satellite radar interferometry data in Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans mode to map the grounding line and ice velocity of Pope, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, in West Antarctica, for the years 2014–2016 and compare the results with those obtained using Earth Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1/2) in 1992, 1996, and 2011. We observe an ongoing, rapid grounding line retreat of Smith at 2 km/yr (40 km since 1996), an 11 km retreat of Pope (0.5 km/yr), and a 2 km readvance of Kohler since 2011. The variability in glacier retreat is consistent with the distribution of basal slopes, i.e., fast along retrograde beds and slow along prograde beds. We find that several pinning points holding Dotson and Crosson ice shelves disappeared since 1996 due to ice shelf thinning, which signal the ongoing weakening of these ice shelves. Overall, the results indicate that ice shelf and glacier retreat in this sector remain unabated.

On the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level change (van den Broeke et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/1933/2016/

Abstract: We assess the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) to sea level change. We use the mass budget method, which quantifies ice sheet mass balance (MB) as the difference between surface mass balance (SMB) and solid ice discharge across the grounding line (D). A comparison with independent gravity change observations from GRACE shows good agreement for the overlapping period 2002–2015, giving confidence in the partitioning of recent GrIS mass changes. The estimated 1995 value of D and the 1958–1995 average value of SMB are similar at 411 and 418 Gt yr−1, respectively, suggesting that ice flow in the mid-1990s was well adjusted to the average annual mass input, reminiscent of an ice sheet in approximate balance. Starting in the early to mid-1990s, SMB decreased while D increased, leading to quasi-persistent negative MB. About 60 % of the associated mass loss since 1991 is caused by changes in SMB and the remainder by D. The decrease in SMB is fully driven by an increase in surface melt and subsequent meltwater runoff, which is slightly compensated by a small (< 3 %) increase in snowfall. The excess runoff originates from low-lying (< 2000 m a.s.l.) parts of the ice sheet; higher up, increased refreezing prevents runoff of meltwater from occurring, at the expense of increased firn temperatures and depleted pore space. With a 1991–2015 average annual mass loss of ~ 0.47 ± 0.23 mm sea level equivalent (SLE) and a peak contribution of 1.2 mm SLE in 2012, the GrIS has recently become a major source of global mean sea level rise.

Tropical Pacific SST drivers of recent Antarctic sea ice trends (Purich et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0440.1

Abstract: A strengthening of the Amundsen Sea Low from 1979-2013 has been shown to largely explain the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice concentration in the eastern Ross Sea and decrease in the Bellingshausen Sea. Here we show that while these changes are not generally seen in freely-running coupled climate model simulations, they are reproduced in simulations of two independent coupled climate models; one constrained by observed sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific, and the other by observed surface wind-stress in the tropics. Our analysis confirms previous results and strengthens the conclusion that the phase change in the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation from positive to negative over 1979-2013 contributed to the observed strengthening of the Amundsen Sea Low and associated pattern of Antarctic sea ice change during this period. New support for this conclusion is provided by simulated trends in spatial patterns of sea ice concentrations that are similar to those observed. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for teleconnections from low to high latitudes in both model simulations and observations of Antarctic sea ice variability and change.

Quantifying ice loss in the eastern Himalayas since 1974 using declassified spy satellite imagery (Maurer et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2203/2016/

Abstract: Himalayan glaciers are important natural resources and climate indicators for densely populated regions in Asia. Remote sensing methods are vital for evaluating glacier response to changing climate over the vast and rugged Himalayan region, yet many platforms capable of glacier mass balance quantification are somewhat temporally limited due to typical glacier response times. We here rely on declassified spy satellite imagery and ASTER data to quantify surface lowering, ice volume change, and geodetic mass balance during 1974–2006 for glaciers in the eastern Himalayas, centered on the Bhutan–China border. The wide range of glacier types allows for the first mass balance comparison between clean, debris, and lake-terminating (calving) glaciers in the region. Measured glaciers show significant ice loss, with an estimated mean annual geodetic mass balance of −0.13 ± 0.06 m w.e. yr−1 (meters of water equivalent per year) for 10 clean-ice glaciers, −0.19 ± 0.11 m w.e. yr−1 for 5 debris-covered glaciers, −0.28 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr−1 for 6 calving glaciers, and −0.17±0.05 m w.e. yr−1 for all glaciers combined. Contrasting hypsometries along with melt pond, ice cliff, and englacial conduit mechanisms result in statistically similar mass balance values for both clean-ice and debris-covered glacier groups. Calving glaciers comprise 18 % (66 km2) of the glacierized area yet have contributed 30 % (−0.7 km3) to the total ice volume loss, highlighting the growing relevance of proglacial lake formation and associated calving for the future ice mass budget of the Himalayas as the number and size of glacial lakes increase.

Quantifying the uncertainty in historical and future simulations of Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover (Thackeray et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0341.1

Abstract: Projections of 21st century Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring snow cover extent (SCE) from two climate model ensembles are analyzed to characterize their uncertainty. The Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble exhibits variability due to both model differences and internal climate variability, whereas spread generated from a Canadian Earth System Model large ensemble (CanESM-LE) experiment is solely due to internal variability. The analysis shows that simulated 1981-2010 spring SCE trends are slightly weaker than observed (using an ensemble of snow products). Spring SCE is projected to decrease by -3.7±1.1% decade-1 within the CMIP5 ensemble over the 21st century. SCE loss is projected to accelerate for all spring months over the 21st century, with the exception of June (because most snow in this month has melted by the latter half of the 21st century). For 30-year spring SCE trends over the 21st century, internal variability estimated from CanESM-LE is substantial, but smaller than inter-model spread from CMIP5. Additionally, internal variability in NH extratropical land warming trends can affect SCE trends in the near-future (R2 = 0.45), while variability in winter precipitation can also have a significant (but lesser) impact on SCE trends. On the other hand, a majority of the inter-model spread is driven by differences in simulated warming (dominant in March, April, May), and snow cover available for melt (dominant in June). The strong temperature/SCE linkage suggests that model uncertainty in projections of SCE could be potentially reduced through improved simulation of spring season warming over land.

Other papers

Persistent artifacts in the NSIDC ice motion dataset and their implications for analysis (Szanyi et al. 2016)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069799/abstract

Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America (Carrivick et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818116301515

Century-scale perspectives on observed and simulated Southern Ocean sea ice trends from proxy reconstructions (Hobbs et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JC012111/abstract

Identifying dynamically induced variability in glacier mass-balance records (Christian et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0128.1

Impacts of marine instability across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet on Southern Ocean dynamics (Phipps et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2317/2016/

Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale (Porada et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2291/2016/

Meltwater Pathways from Marine Terminating Glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Gillard et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070969/abstract

Assimilation of surface velocities between 1996 and 2010 to constrain the form of the basal friction law under Pine Island Glacier (Gillet-Chaulet et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069937/abstract

Linked trends in the south Pacific sea ice edge and Southern Oscillation Index (Kwok et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070655/abstract

Greenland during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes (Pedersen et al. 2016) http://www.clim-past.net/12/1907/2016/

The impact of melt ponds on summertime microwave brightness temperatures and sea-ice concentrations (Kern et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2217/2016/

The EUMETSAT sea ice concentration climate data record (Tonboe et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2275/2016/

Temperature reconstruction from the length fluctuations of small glaciers in the eastern Alps (northeastern Italy) (Zecchetto et al. 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-016-3347-5

Variability, trends, and predictability of seasonal sea ice retreat and advance in the Chukchi Sea (Serreze et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JC011977/abstract

Producing cloud-free MODIS snow cover products with conditional probability interpolation and meteorological data (Dong & Menzel, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716303625

ICESat laser altimetry over small mountain glaciers (Treichler & Kääb, 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2129/2016/

Heterogeneous glacier thinning patterns over the last 40 years in Langtang Himal, Nepal (Ragettli et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2075/2016/

Arctic sea ice patterns driven by the Asian Summer Monsoon (Grunseich & Wang, 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0207.1

Impact of climate warming on snow processes in ny-Ålesund, a polar maritime site at Svalbard (López-Moreno et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818116303903

Variations in ice velocities of Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf evaluated using multispectral image matching of Landsat time series data (Han et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716303443

Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003–2012) (Schlegel et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/1965/2016/

Near-real-time Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2 (Tilling et al. 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2003/2016/

Potential for estimation of snow depth on Arctic sea ice from CryoSat-2 and SARAL/AltiKa missions (Guerreiro et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716302711

Sliding of temperate basal ice on a rough, hard bed: creep mechanisms, pressure melting, and implications for ice streaming (Krabbendam, 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/1915/2016/

Monte Carlo modelling projects the loss of most land-terminating glaciers on Svalbard in the 21st century under RCP 8.5 forcing (Möller et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094006/meta

North-east sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet to undergo the greatest inland expansion of supraglacial lakes during the 21st century (Ignéczi et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070338/abstract

Posted in Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – biosphere (October 10, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on October 10, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on biosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

Population trends influence species ability to track climate change (Ralston et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13478/abstract

Abstract: Shifts of distributions have been attributed to species tracking their fundamental climate niches through space. However, several studies have now demonstrated that niche tracking is imperfect, that species’ climate niches may vary with population trends, and that geographic distributions may lag behind rapid climate change. These reports of imperfect niche tracking imply shifts in species’ realized climate niches. We argue that quantifying climate niche shifts and analyzing them for a suite of species reveal general patterns of niche shifts and the factors affecting species’ ability to track climate change. We analyzed changes in realized climate niche between 1984 and 2012 for 46 species of North American birds in relation to population trends in an effort to determine whether species differ in the ability to track climate change and whether differences in niche tracking are related to population trends. We found that increasingly abundant species tended to show greater levels of niche expansion (climate space occupied in 2012 but not in 1980) compared to declining species. Declining species had significantly greater niche unfilling (climate space occupied in 1980 but not in 2012) compared to increasing species due to an inability to colonize new sites beyond their range peripheries after climate had changed at sites of occurrence. Increasing species, conversely, were better able to colonize new sites and therefore showed very little niche unfilling. Our results indicate that species with increasing trends are better able to geographically track climate change compared to declining species, which exhibited lags relative to changes in climate. These findings have important implications for understanding past changes in distribution, as well as modeling dynamic species distributions in the face of climate change.

Phylogenetic conservatism and climate factors shape flowering phenology in alpine meadows (Li et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-016-3666-6

Abstract: The study of phylogenetic conservatism in alpine plant phenology is critical for predicting climate change impacts; currently we have a poor understanding of how phylogeny and climate factors interactively influence plant phenology. Therefore, we explored the influence of phylogeny and climate factors on flowering phenology in alpine meadows. For two different types of alpine plant communities, we recorded phenological data, including flowering peak, first flower budding, first flowering, first fruiting and the flowering end for 62 species over the course of 5 years (2008–2012). From sequences in two plastid regions, we constructed phylogenetic trees. We used Blomberg’s K and Pagel’s lambda to assess the phylogenetic signal in phenological traits and species’ phenological responses to climate factors. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in the date of all reproductive phenological events and in species’ phenological responses to weekly day length and temperature. The number of species in flower was strongly associated with the weekly day lengths and followed by the weekly temperature prior to phenological activity. Based on phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) analysis, we found a highly shared influence of phylogeny and climate factors on alpine species flowering phenology. Our results suggest the phylogenetic conservatism in both flowering and fruiting phenology may depend on the similarity of responses to external environmental cues among close relatives.

Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat (Stern & Laidre, 2016) http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/2027/2016/

Abstract: Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology – the cycle of biological events – is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat) on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance) on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979–2014) mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from −3 to −9 days decade−1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade−1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days) and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of −7 to −19 days decade−1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June–October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from −1 to −9 percent decade−1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change) were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in future reports.

Lagging behind: have we overlooked previous-year rainfall effects in annual grasslands? (Dudney et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12671/abstract

Abstract: 1.Rainfall is a key determinant of production and composition in arid and semiarid systems. Long-term studies relating composition and water availability primarily focus on current-year precipitation patterns, though mounting evidence highlights the importance of previous-year rainfall particularly in grasslands dominated by perennial species. The extent to which lagged precipitation effects occur in annual grasslands, however, remains largely unexplored.

2.We pair a long-term study with two manipulative experiments to identify patterns and mechanisms of lagged precipitation effects in annual grasslands. The long-term study captured variation in functional group (exotic annual forbs and grasses) abundance and precipitation across eight years at three northern California grassland sites. We then tested whether lagged rainfall effects were created through seed production and litter (residual dry matter) by manipulating rainfall and litter, respectively.

3.Rainfall from the previous-year growing season (both seasonal and total rainfall) shifted functional group abundance. High lagged rainfall was associated with increased grass and decreased forb abundance the following year. Current-year seasonal rainfall also influenced species composition, with winter rain increasing forb and decreasing grass abundance. Lagged precipitation effects were generally stronger for forbs than for grasses. Our experimental studies provided evidence for two mechanisms that contributed to lagged effects in annual grasslands. Higher rainfall increased seed production for grasses, which translated to more germinable seed the following year. Higher rainfall also increased biomass production and residual dry matter, which benefited grasses and reduced forb abundance.

4.Synthesis. Our results highlight the importance of previous-year precipitation in structuring annual community composition and suggest two important biotic pathways, seed rain and RDM, that regulate lagged community responses to rainfall. Incorporating lagged effects into models of grassland diversity and productivity could improve predictions of climate change impacts in annual grasslands.

Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change (Santangeli et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13518/abstract

Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared to those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 70s and 80s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are however shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it’s too late.

Other papers

Impact of temperature and precipitation extremes on the flowering dates of four German wildlife shrub species (Siegmund et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/5541/2016/

Cyanobacteria in aquaculture systems: linking the occurrence, abundance and toxicity with rising temperatures (Sinden & Sinang, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13762-016-1112-2

Under-ice habitats for Antarctic krill larvae: could less mean more under climate warming? (Melbourne-Thomas et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070846/abstract

Responses of land evapotranspiration to Earth’s greening in CMIP5 Earth System Models (Zeng et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/10/104006/meta

Impacts of droughts on the growth resilience of Northern Hemisphere forests (Gazol et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geb.12526/abstract

Environmental status of the Gulf of California: A review of responses to climate change and climate variability (Páez-Osuna et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825216301416

High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise (Field et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13519/abstract

Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, temporal stability and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds (Miles et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13486/abstract

Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures? (Sinclair et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12686/abstract

Ectomycorrhizal fungal response to warming is linked to poor host performance at the boreal-temperate ecotone (Fernandez et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13510/abstract

Spatiotemporal variability of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) growth response to climate across the Iberian Peninsula (Natalini et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1125786516300777

Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change (Zhu et al. 2016) http://www.pnas.org/content/113/38/10589.short

An unprecedented coastwide toxic algal bloom linked to anomalous ocean conditions (McCabe et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070023/abstract

Increased activity of lysozyme and complement system in Atlantic halibut exposed to elevated CO2 at six different temperatures (de Souza et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113616301696

Multisite analysis of land surface phenology in North American temperate and boreal deciduous forests from Landsat (Melaas et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716303571

Responses of spring phenology in a fruit tree species (Pyrus sp. cv. Pingguoli) to the changes in surface air temperature in Northeast China (Shen & Kobayashi, 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4877/abstract

Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models (Fu et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/5151/2016/

Decreased photosynthesis and growth with reduced respiration in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown under elevated CO2 over 1800 generations (Li et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13501/abstract

Where do they go? The effects of topography and habitat diversity on reducing climatic debt in birds (Gaüzère et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13500/abstract

Precipitation, not air temperature, drives functional responses of trees in semi-arid ecosystems (Grossiord et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12662/abstract

Relationships between individual-tree mortality and water-balance variables indicate positive trends in water stress-induced tree mortality across North America (Hember et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13428/abstract

Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions (Thom et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13506/abstract

Extreme climatic events constrain space use and survival of a ground-nesting bird (Tanner et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13505/abstract

Spatial and evolutionary parallelism between shade and drought tolerance explains the distributions of conifers in the conterminous United States (Rueda et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geb.12511/abstract

Effects of climate change on the distribution of indigenous species in oceanic islands (Azores) (Ferreira et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1754-6

Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: what are you sneezing at? (Stinson et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-016-3670-x

Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography (Moore et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/5085/2016/

Temporal variability in the thermal requirements for vegetation phenology on the Tibetan plateau and its implications for carbon dynamics (Jin et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1736-8

Posted in Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – climate and mankind (October 6, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on October 6, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on mankind are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

The limits of poverty reduction in support of climate change adaptation (Nelson et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094011/meta

Abstract: The relationship between poverty and climate change vulnerability is complex and though not commensurate, the distinctions between the two are often blurred. There is widespread recognition of the need to better understand poverty-vulnerability dynamics in order to improve risk management and poverty reduction investments. This is challenging due to the latent nature of adaptive capacities, frequent lack of baseline data, and the need for high-resolution studies. Here we respond to these challenges by analyzing household-level data in Northeast Brazil to compare drought events 14 years apart. In the period between droughts, the government implemented an aggressive anti-poverty program that includes financial and human capital investments. Poverty declined significantly, but the expected reduction in vulnerability did not occur, in part because the households were not investing in risk management strategies. Our findings complement other research that shows that households make rational decisions that may not correspond with policymaker expectations. We emphasize the need for complementary investments to help channel increased household wealth into risk reduction, and to ensure that the public sector itself continues to prioritize the public functions of risk management, especially in areas where the social cost of climatic risk is high.

Perceptions of thermal comfort in heatwave and non-heatwave conditions in Melbourne, Australia (Lam et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212095516300396

Abstract: Heatwaves can cause discomfort and illnesses due to heat stress. However, how people perceive thermal comfort and adapt to extreme heat conditions on heatwave days is uncertain. Most outdoor thermal comfort studies have been conducted under non-extreme conditions and very few during heatwaves. For those studies that encountered a heatwave, sample size tends to be small or modelling approaches were used to assess thermal comfort. It is important to understand people’s perceptions in relation to the physiological experience during extreme heat, as it would help practitioners apply the extreme heat range of thermal indices in outdoor settings. To understand people’s thermal perception and clothing behaviour during a heatwave, we combined meteorological measurements and thermal comfort surveys at two botanic gardens in Melbourne, Australia. The variations in respondents’ thermal comfort and clothing are assessed during heatwave and non-heatwave conditions, where temperatures during heatwave conditions exceeded 36°C. We observed that local visitors felt significantly hotter and wore less clothing for the same ranges of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) during heatwave than non-heatwave conditions. Thus, we suggest that thermal expectation influences changes in thermal perceptions and clothing, even over the course of several days to a week.

How do we assess vulnerability to climate change in India? A systematic review of literature (Singh et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-016-1043-y

Abstract: In countries like India where multiple risks interact with socio-economic differences to create and sustain vulnerability, assessing the vulnerability of people, places, and systems to climate change is a critical tool to prioritise adaptation. In India, several vulnerability assessment tools have been designed spanning multiple disciplines, by multiple actors, and at multiple scales. However, their conceptual, methodological, and disciplinary underpinnings, and resulting implications on who is identified as vulnerable, have not been interrogated. Addressing this gap, we systematically review peer-reviewed publications (n = 78) and grey literature (n = 42) to characterise how vulnerability to climate change is assessed in India. We frame our enquiry against four questions: (1) How is vulnerability conceptualised (vulnerability of whom/what, vulnerability to what), (2) who assesses vulnerability, (3) how is vulnerability assessed (methodology, scale), and (4) what are the implications of methodology on outcomes of the assessment. Our findings emphasise that methods to assess vulnerability to climate change are embedded in the disciplinary traditions, methodological approaches, and often-unstated motivations of those designing the assessment. Further, while most assessments acknowledge the importance of scalar and temporal aspects of vulnerability, we find few examples of it being integrated in methodology. Such methodological myopia potentially overlooks how social differentiation, ecological shifts, and institutional dynamics construct and perpetuate vulnerability. Finally, we synthesise the strengths and weaknesses of current vulnerability assessment methods in India and identify a predominance of research in rural landscapes with a relatively lower coverage in urban and peri-urban settlements, which are key interfaces of transitions.

Drought effects on US maize and soybean production: spatiotemporal patterns and historical changes (Zipper et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094021/meta

Abstract: Maximizing agricultural production on existing cropland is one pillar of meeting future global food security needs. To close crop yield gaps, it is critical to understand how climate extremes such as drought impact yield. Here, we use gridded, daily meteorological data and county-level annual yield data to quantify meteorological drought sensitivity of US maize and soybean production from 1958 to 2007. Meteorological drought negatively affects crop yield over most US crop-producing areas, and yield is most sensitive to short-term (1–3 month) droughts during critical development periods from July to August. While meteorological drought is associated with 13% of overall yield variability, substantial spatial variability in drought effects and sensitivity exists, with central and southeastern US becoming increasingly sensitive to drought over time. Our study illustrates fine-scale spatiotemporal patterns of drought effects, highlighting where variability in crop production is most strongly associated with drought, and suggests that management strategies that buffer against short-term water stress may be most effective at sustaining long-term crop productivity.

Climate change discourse among Iranian farmers (Zobeidi et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1741-y

Abstract: Climate change poses a severe threat to agriculture and rural populations around the world, with the potential to devastate lives and livelihoods. Farmers need to adapt their farming methods and land management decisions to reduce the negative consequences associated with climate change. Understanding farmers’ beliefs and perceptions regarding climate change is a good starting point for addressing current and future policy. As there is no one-size-fits-all strategy to promote adaptation, local adaptation-support strategies must be tailored to the particular needs and constraints of specific groups of farmers. To determine the policy implications of such strategies, a prudent and cost-effective approach is to categorize farmers into homogenous groupings using Q methodology to establish their perceptual frameworks with respect to climate change. Forty six farmers completed the Q sort procedure in this study. Data analysis identified that there are three different types of farmers’ attitudes to climate change: fatalism, support seekers, and technocrats. These findings are critical for decision makers to help them develop more appropriate adaptation strategies for the agricultural sector.

Other papers

Long-term trend analysis in climate variables and agricultural adaptation strategies to climate change in the Senegal River Basin (Djaman et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4885/abstract

The Evolution of Agricultural Drought Transition Periods in the United States Corn Belt (Schiraldi & Roundy, 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0225.1

Do Western and Eastern Europe have the same agricultural climate response? Taking adaptive capacity into account (Vanschoenwinkel et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378016302060

Patterns of crop cover under future climates (Porfirio et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-016-0818-1

Longitudinal assessment of climate vulnerability: a case study from the Canadian Arctic (Archer et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11625-016-0401-5

Effects of Rainfall on Vehicle Crashes in Six U.S. States (Black et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/WCAS-D-16-0035.1

The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study (Näyhä et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-016-1243-7

Trade agreements, labour mobility and climate change in the Pacific Islands (Weber, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-016-1047-7

Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and drought stress modify root exudation of barley (Calvo et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13503/abstract

Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity (Chmura et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-016-1245-5

Assessing climate change vulnerability in urban America: stakeholder-driven approaches (McCormick, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1757-3

Spatio-temporal analyses of impacts of multiple climatic hazards in a savannah ecosystem of Ghana (Yiran et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212096316300493

Health sector preparedness for adaptation planning in India (Dasgupta et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1745-7

The effect of climate change on rural land cover patterns in the Central United States (Lant et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1738-6

Intensity and economic loss assessment of the snow, low-temperature and frost disasters: a case study of Beijing City (Wang et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-016-2429-3

A good farmer pays attention to the weather (Morton et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212096316300481

Responding to the Millennium drought: comparing domestic water cultures in three Australian cities (Lindsay et al. 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-016-1048-6

Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa (Guan et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303471

Contract farming and the adoption of climate change coping and adaptation strategies in the northern region of Ghana (Azumah et al. 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10668-016-9854-z

Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions (Paparrizos & Matzarakis, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00703-016-0475-8

Posted in Adaptation & Mitigation, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – climate change mitigation (October 3, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on October 3, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change mitigation are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

Carbon balance effects of U.S. biofuel production and use (DeCicco et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1764-4

Abstract: The use of liquid biofuels has expanded over the past decade in response to policies such as the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) that promote their use for transportation. One rationale is the belief that biofuels are inherently carbon neutral, meaning that only production-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to be tallied when comparing them to fossil fuels. This assumption is embedded in the lifecycle analysis (LCA) modeling used to justify and administer such policies. LCA studies have often found that crop-based biofuels such as corn ethanol and biodiesel offer at least modest net GHG reductions relative to petroleum fuels. Data over the period of RFS expansion enable empirical assessment of net CO2 emission effects. This analysis evaluates the direct carbon exchanges (both emissions and uptake) between the atmosphere and the U.S. vehicle-fuel system (motor vehicles and the physical supply chain for motor fuels) over 2005–2013. While U.S. biofuel use rose from 0.37 to 1.34 EJ/yr over this period, additional carbon uptake on cropland was enough to offset only 37 % of the biofuel-related biogenic CO2 emissions. This result falsifies the assumption of a full offset made by LCA and other GHG accounting methods that assume biofuel carbon neutrality. Once estimates from the literature for process emissions and displacement effects including land-use change are considered, the conclusion is that U.S. biofuel use to date is associated with a net increase rather than a net decrease in CO2 emissions.

Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement? (Fujimori et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/10/104001/meta

Abstract: Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%–3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

The prospective of coal power in China: Will it reach a plateau in the coming decade? (Yuan et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304918

Abstract: Coal power holds the king position in China’s generation mix and has resulted in ever-increasing ecological and environmental issues; hence, the development of the electric power sector is confronted with a series of new challenges. China has recently adopted a new economic principle of the “new economic normal,” which has a large effect on the projection electricity demand and power generation planning through 2020. This paper measures electricity demand based upon China’s social and economic structure. The 2020 roadmap presents China’s developing targets for allocating energy resources to meet new demands, and the 2030 roadmap is compiled based upon an ambitious expansion of clean energy sources. Results show that electricity demand is expected to reach 7500 TWh in 2020 and 9730 TWh in 2030. Coal power is expected to reach its peak in 2020 at around 970 GW, and will then enter a plateau, even with a pathway of active electricity substitution in place.

Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10% (Turnbull et al. 2016) http://www.pnas.org/content/113/37/10287.short

Abstract: Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 (14CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric 14CO2. These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions.

Expert assessment concludes negative emissions scenarios may not deliver (Vaughan & Cough, 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095003/meta

Abstract: Many integrated assessment models (IAMs) rely on the availability and extensive use of biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) to deliver emissions scenarios consistent with limiting climate change to below 2 °C average temperature rise. BECCS has the potential to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, delivering ‘negative emissions’. The deployment of BECCS at the scale assumed in IAM scenarios is highly uncertain: biomass energy is commonly used but not at such a scale, and CCS technologies have been demonstrated but not commercially established. Here we present the results of an expert elicitation process that explores the explicit and implicit assumptions underpinning the feasibility of BECCS in IAM scenarios. Our results show that the assumptions are considered realistic regarding technical aspects of CCS but unrealistic regarding the extent of bioenergy deployment, and development of adequate societal support and governance structures for BECCS. The results highlight concerns about the assumed magnitude of carbon dioxide removal achieved across a full BECCS supply chain, with the greatest uncertainty in bioenergy production. Unrealistically optimistic assumptions regarding the future availability of BECCS in IAM scenarios could lead to the overshoot of critical warming limits and have significant impacts on near-term mitigation options.

Other papers

Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation (Katzner et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12836/abstract

Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China’s household energy consumption (Ma et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674927815300174

Public perceptions and acceptance of induced earthquakes related to energy development (McComas et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030142151630492X

The design of renewable support schemes and CO2 emissions in China (Wu et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516305122

Public conceptions of justice in climate engineering: Evidence from secondary analysis of public deliberation (McLaren et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378016301704

Multi-year energy balance and carbon dioxide fluxes over a residential neighbourhood in a tropical city (Roth et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4873/abstract

Solar energy storage in German households: profitability, load changes and flexibility (Kaschub et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304815

How wind became a four-letter word: Lessons for community engagement from a wind energy conflict in King Island, Australia (Colvin et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304888

Paying the full price of steel – Perspectives on the cost of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry (Rootzén & Johnsson, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304876

The environmental impact of activities after life: life cycle assessment of funerals (Keijzer, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11367-016-1183-9

Impacts devalue the potential of large-scale terrestrial CO2 removal through biomass plantations (Boysen et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095010/meta

Measurements of methane emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the eddy covariance technique (Prajapati & Santos, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016819231630380X

Do national-level policies to promote low-carbon technology deployment pay off for the investor countries? (Iyer et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304335

Russia’s black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources (Kholod et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11267/2016/

Place-based inter-generational communication on local climate improves adolescents’ perceptions and willingness to mitigate climate change (Hu & Chen, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1746-6

A quantile regression analysis of China’s provincial CO2 emissions: Where does the difference lie? (Xu & Lin, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304694

Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy (Aune et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304670

Is ecological personality always consistent with low-carbon behavioral intention of urban residents? (Wei et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304700

Assessing the merits of bioenergy by estimating marginal climate-change impacts (Kirschbaum, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11367-016-1196-4

Nuclear accident reminders and support for nuclear energy: Paradoxical effect (Selimbegović et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272494416300846

Progress, challenges and perspectives in flexible perovskite solar cells (Di Giacomo et al. 2016) http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2016/EE/C6EE01137C

Mitigation of methane emissions in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies (Hopkins et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000381/abstract

Narratives in climate change discourse (Fløttum & Gjerstad, 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.429/abstract

Has energy conservation been an effective policy for Thailand? An input–output structural decomposition analysis from 1995 to 2010 (Supasa et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304530

Is nuclear economical in comparison to renewables? (Suna & Resch, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304487

The sower’s way: quantifying the narrowing net-energy pathways to a global energy transition (Sgouridis et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094009/meta

Testing the efficacy of voluntary urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories (Khan & Sovacool, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1793-z

Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment (Shibata et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-016-0815-4

Estimating fugitive methane emissions from oil sands mining using extractive core samples (Johnson et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016306720

Carbon intensity of electricity in ASEAN: Drivers, performance and outlook (Ang & Goh, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304529

Global economic consequences of deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) (Muratori et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095004/meta

Cost Implications of Uncertainty in CO2 Storage Resource Estimates: A Review (Anderson, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11053-016-9310-7

Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015 (Hu & Chen, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304499

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New research – hydrosphere (September 26, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 26, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on hydrosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities (Hartin et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/4329/2016/

Abstract: Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model’s sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector’s carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification projections and sensitivity analyses, and it is capable of emulating both current observations and large-scale climate models under multiple emission pathways.

Anthropogenic and climate-driven water depletion in Asia (Yi et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069985/abstract

Abstract: Anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be alleviated in wet years and intensified in dry years, and this wet/dry pattern spanning seasons to years is termed climate variability. However, the anthropogenic and climate-driven changes have not been isolated in previous studies; thus, the estimated trend of changes in TWS is strongly dependent on the study period. Here we try to remove the influence of climate variability from the estimation of the anthropogenic contribution, which is an indicator of the environmental burden and important for TWS projections. Toward this end, we propose a linear relationship between the variation in water storage and precipitation. Factors related to the sensitivity of water storage to precipitation are given to correct for the climate variability, and the anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water and groundwater in Asia is estimated to be −187 ± 38 Gt/yr and −100 ± 47 Gt/yr, respectively.

Are long tide gauge records in the wrong place to measure global mean sea level rise? (Thompson et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070552/abstract

Abstract: Ocean dynamics, land motion, and changes in Earth’s gravitational and rotational fields cause local sea level change to deviate from the rate of global mean sea level rise. Here, we use observations and simulations of spatial structure in sea level change to estimate the likelihood that these processes cause sea level trends in the longest and highest-quality tide gauge records to be systematically biased relative to the true global mean rate. The analyzed records have an average 20th century rate of approximately 1.6 mm/yr, but based on the locations of these gauges, we show the simple average underestimates the 20th century global mean rate by 0.1  ±  0.2 mm/yr. Given the distribution of potential sampling biases, we find < 1% probability that observed trends from the longest and highest-quality TG records are consistent with global mean rates less than 1.4 mm/yr.

Development of a 0.5 deg global monthly raining day product from 1901-2010 (Stillman & Zeng, 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070244/abstract

Abstract: While several long-term global datasets of monthly precipitation amount (P) are widely available, only the Climate Research Unit (CRU) provides long-term global monthly raining day number (N) data (i.e., daily precipitation frequency in a month), with P/N representing the daily precipitation intensity. However, because CRU N is based on a limited number of gauges, it is found to perform poorly over data sparse regions. By combining the CRU method with a short-term gauge-satellite merged global daily precipitation dataset (CMORPH) and a global long-term monthly precipitation dataset (GPCC) with far more gauges than used in CRU, a new 0.5 deg global N dataset from 1901-2010 is developed, which differs significantly from CRU N. Compared with three independent regional daily precipitation products over U.S., China, and South America based on much denser gauge networks than used in CRU, the new product shows significant improvement over CRU N.

Detection and delineation of glacial lakes and identification of potentially dangerous lakes of Dhauliganga basin in the Himalaya by remote sensing techniques (Jha & Khare, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-016-2565-9

Abstract: Glaciers are retreating and thinning in the high altitude of the Himalayas due to global warming, causing into formation of numerous glacial lakes. It is necessary to monitor these glacial lakes consistently to save properties and lives downstream from probable disastrous glacial lake outburst flood. In this study, image processing software ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine have been used to analyse multispectral image obtained by Earth resource satellite Landsat for delineating the glacial lakes with the help of image enhancement technique like NDWI. Landsat data since 1972 through 2013 have been used and maximum seven glacial lakes (L1–L7) have been detected and delineated in Dhauliganga catchment, they are situated above 4000 masl. The Glacial Lake L2 (Lat 30°26′45″E and Long 80°23′16″N) is the largest whose surface area was 132,300 m2 in Sept 2009, and L6 (Lat 30°23′27″E and Long 80°31′52″N) is highly unstable with variation rate −55 to +145 % with increasing trend. Additionally, glacial lakes L2 (Lat 30°26′45″E and Long 80°23′16″N) and L6 (Lat 30°23′27″E and Long 80°31′52″N) have been identified as potentially hazardous. These lakes may probably burst; as a result, huge reserve of water and debris may be released all on a sudden. This may transform into hazardous flash flood in downstream causing loss of lives, as well as the destruction of houses, bridges, fields, forests, hydropower stations, roads, etc. It is to note that Dhauliganga river considered in this study is a tributary of Kaliganga river, and should not be confused with its namesake the Dhauliganga river, which is a tributary of Alaknanda river.

Other papers

Extreme hydrological changes in the southwestern US drive reductions in water supply to Southern California by mid century (Pagán et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094026/meta

Regionalizing Africa: Patterns of Precipitation Variability in Observations and Global Climate Models (Badr et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0182.1

Evidencing decadal and interdecadal hydroclimatic variability over the Central Andes (Segura et al. 2016) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094016/meta

The uncertainties and causes of the recent changes in global evapotranspiration from 1982 to 2010 (Dong & Dai, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-016-3342-x

Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China (Sun et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-016-1930-7

Climate change in the Blue Nile Basin Ethiopia: implications for water resources and sediment transport (Wagena et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1785-z

Rainfall in Qatar: Is it changing? (Mamoon & Rahman, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-016-2576-6

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) (Liu et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0023.1

A multi-satellite climatology of clouds, radiation and precipitation in southern West Africa and comparison to climate models (Hill et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025246/abstract

Detection, Attribution and Projection of Regional Rainfall Changes on (Multi-) Decadal Time Scales: A Focus on Southeastern South America (Zhang et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0287.1

Which weather systems are projected to cause future changes in mean and extreme precipitation in CMIP5 simulations? (Utsumi et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD024939/abstract

Out-phased decadal precipitation regime shift in China and the United States (Yang & Fu, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-016-1907-6

Forcing of recent decadal variability in the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean (Thompson et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JC012132/abstract

Proxy-based reconstruction of surface water acidification and carbonate saturation of the Levant Sea during the Anthropocene (Bialik & Sisma-Ventura, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213305416300881

Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations (Byrne & O’Gorman, 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0351.1

Spatial trend analysis of Hawaiian rainfall from 1920 to 2012 (Frazier & Giambelluca, 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4862/abstract

Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissions (Terentieva et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/4615/2016/

Wind driven mixing at intermediate depths in an ice-free Arctic Ocean (Lincoln et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070454/abstract

Seasonal Evolution of Supraglacial Lakes on an East Antarctic Outlet Glacier (Langley et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069511/abstract

Temperature-salinity structure of the North Atlantic circulation and associated heat and freshwater transports (Xu et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0798.1

Eustatic and Relative Sea Level Changes (Rovere et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40641-016-0045-7

A mechanism for the response of the zonally asymmetric subtropical hydrologic cycle to global warming (Levine & Boos, 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0826.1

Quantifying the contribution of glacier-melt water in the expansion of the largest lake in Tibet (Tong et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025424/abstract

Posted in Adaptation & Mitigation, Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks (September 22, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 22, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

The Effects of Ocean Heat Uptake on Transient Climate Sensitivity (Rose & Rayborn, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40641-016-0048-4

Abstract: Transient climate sensitivity tends to increase on multiple timescales in climate models subject to an abrupt CO2 increase. The interdependence of radiative and ocean heat uptake processes governing this increase are reviewed. Heat uptake tends to be spatially localized to the subpolar oceans, and this pattern emerges rapidly from an initially uniform distribution. Global climatic impact of heat uptake is studied through the lens of the efficacy concept and a linear systems perspective in which responses to individual climate forcing agents are additive. Heat uptake can be treated as a slowly varying forcing on the atmosphere and surface, whose efficacy is strongly determined by its geographical pattern. An illustrative linear model driven by simple prescribed uptake patterns demonstrates the emergence of increasing climate sensitivity as a consequence of the slow decay of high-efficacy subpolar heat uptake. Evidence is reviewed for the key role of shortwave cloud feedbacks in setting the high efficacy of ocean heat uptake and thus in increasing climate sensitivity. A causal physical mechanism is proposed, linking subpolar heat uptake to a global-scale increase in lower-tropospheric stability. It is shown that the rate of increase in estimated inversion strength systematically slows as heat uptake decays. Variations in heat uptake should therefore manifest themselves as differences in low cloud feedbacks.

Understanding Climate Feedbacks and Sensitivity Using Observations of Earth’s Energy Budget (Loeb et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40641-016-0047-5

Abstract: While climate models and observations generally agree that climate feedbacks collectively amplify the surface temperature response to radiative forcing, the strength of the feedback estimates varies greatly, resulting in appreciable uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity. Because climate feedbacks respond differently to different spatial variations in temperature, short-term observational records have thus far only provided a weak constraint for climate feedbacks operating under global warming. Further complicating matters is the likelihood of considerable time variation in the effective global climate feedback parameter under transient warming. There is a need to continue to revisit the underlying assumptions used in the traditional forcing-feedback framework, with an emphasis on how climate models and observations can best be utilized to reduce the uncertainties. Model simulations can also guide observational requirements and provide insight on how the observational record can most effectively be analyzed in order to make progress in this critical area of climate research.

Insights from a Refined Decomposition of Cloud Feedbacks (Zelinka et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069917/abstract

Abstract: Decomposing cloud feedback into components due to changes in several gross cloud properties provides valuable insights into its physical causes. Here we present a refined decomposition that separately considers changes in free tropospheric and low cloud properties, better connecting feedbacks to individual governing processes and avoiding ambiguities present in a commonly used decomposition. It reveals that three net cloud feedback components are robustly nonzero: positive feedbacks from increasing free tropospheric cloud altitude and decreasing low cloud cover and a negative feedback from increasing low cloud optical depth. Low cloud amount feedback is the dominant contributor to spread in net cloud feedback but its anticorrelation with other components damps overall spread. The ensemble mean free tropospheric cloud altitude feedback is roughly 60% as large as the standard cloud altitude feedback because it avoids aliasing in low cloud reductions. Implications for the “null hypothesis” climate sensitivity from well-understood and robustly simulated feedbacks are discussed.

Rapid systematic assessment of the detection and attribution of regional anthropogenic climate change (Stone & Hansen, 2016) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-015-2909-2

Abstract: Despite being a well-established research field, the detection and attribution of observed climate change to anthropogenic forcing is not yet provided as a climate service. One reason for this is the lack of a methodology for performing tailored detection and attribution assessments on a rapid time scale. Here we develop such an approach, based on the translation of quantitative analysis into the “confidence” language employed in recent Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. While its systematic nature necessarily ignores some nuances examined in detailed expert assessments, the approach nevertheless goes beyond most detection and attribution studies in considering contributors to building confidence such as errors in observational data products arising from sparse monitoring networks. When compared against recent expert assessments, the results of this approach closely match those of the existing assessments. Where there are small discrepancies, these variously reflect ambiguities in the details of what is being assessed, reveal nuances or limitations of the expert assessments, or indicate limitations of the accuracy of the sort of systematic approach employed here. Deployment of the method on 116 regional assessments of recent temperature and precipitation changes indicates that existing rules of thumb concerning the detectability of climate change ignore the full range of sources of uncertainty, most particularly the importance of adequate observational monitoring.

One Year of Downwelling Spectral Radiance Measurements from 100 to 1400 cm−1 at Dome-Concordia: Results in Clear Conditions (Rizzi et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025341/abstract

Abstract: The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome-C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization Lidar is also deployed at same site and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. Firstly, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear-sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the REFIR-PAD measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected micro-windows except for the negative residuals found for all micro-windows in the range 200 to 400 cm−1, with largest values around 295.1 cm−1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm−1.

Other papers

Dependence of global radiative feedbacks on evolving patterns of surface heat fluxes (Rugenstein et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070907/abstract

Understanding the varied influence of mid-latitude jet position on clouds and cloud-radiative effects in observations and global climate models (Grise & Medeiros, 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0295.1

Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States (Wickham et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818116302892

Forced response and internal variability of summer climate over western North America (Kamae et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-016-3350-x

Detection and attribution of climate change at regional scale: case study of Karkheh river basin in the west of Iran (Zohrabi et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-016-1896-5

Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared absorption spectra, radiative forcings and global warming potentials of NF3 and CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115) (Totterdill et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11451/2016/

A long-term study of aerosol–cloud interactions and their radiative effect at the Southern Great Plains using ground-based measurements (Sena et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11301/2016/

Detection of dimming/brightening in Italy from homogenized all-sky and clear-sky surface solar radiation records and underlying causes (1959–2013) (Manara et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11145/2016/

Effects of 20–100 nm particles on liquid clouds in the clean summertime Arctic (Leaitch et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11107/2016/

Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia (Han et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-016-1913-8

Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols (Lin et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070869/abstract

Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade (Lin et al. 2016) http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo2798.html

Reprocessing of HIRS Satellite Measurements from 1980-2015: Development Towards a Consistent Decadal Cloud Record (Menzel et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0129.1

Radiative Forcing from Anthropogenic Sulfur and Organic Emissions Reaching the Stratosphere (Yu et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070153/abstract

Near miss: the importance of the natural atmospheric CO2 concentration to human historical evolution (Archer, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1725-y

Long-Term Variations of Noctilucent Clouds at ALOMAR (Fiedler et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616302024

Estimating Arctic sea-ice shortwave albedo from MODIS data (Qu et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425716303182

Surface albedo raise in the South American Chaco: Combined effects of deforestation and agricultural changes (Houspanossian et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303707

New Observational Evidence for a Positive Cloud Feedback that Amplifies the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (Bellomo et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069961/abstract

Surface water and heat exchange comparison between alpine meadow and bare land in a permafrost region of the Tibetan Plateau (You et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303598

foF2 vs Solar Indices for the Rome station: looking for the best general relation which is able to describe the anomalous minimum between cycles 23 and 24 (Perna & Pezzopane, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301894

Comparison of Methods: Attributing the 2014 record European temperatures to human influences (Uhe et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069568/abstract

Relevance of long term time – series of atmospheric parameters at a mountain observatory to models for climate change (Kancírová et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301882

An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models (Räisänen, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-016-3277-2

Posted in Climate claims, Climate science | Leave a Comment »

New research – atmospheric composition (September 19, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 19, 2016

Some of the latest papers on atmospheric composition (mainly on greenhouse gases and aerosols) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (Fioletov et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11497/2016/

Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005–2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005–2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI.

Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau (Bastos et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/4877/2016/

Abstract: The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940–1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940–1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr−1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr−1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940–1942 El Niño on the observed stabilization of atmospheric CO2 cannot be confirmed nor discarded, as TRENDY models do not reproduce the expected concurrent strong decrease in terrestrial uptake. Nevertheless, this would further increase the mismatch between observed and modelled CO2 growth rate during the CO2 plateau epoch. Tests performed using the OSCAR (v2.2) model indicate that changes in land use not correctly accounted for during the period (coinciding with drastic socioeconomic changes during the Second World War) could contribute to the additional sink required. Thus, the previously proposed ocean hypothesis for the 1940s plateau cannot be confirmed by independent data. Further efforts are required to reduce uncertainty in the different terms of the carbon budget during the first half of the 20th century and to better understand the long-term variability of the ocean and terrestrial CO2 sinks.

Trace gases in the atmosphere over Russian cities (Elansky et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016306392

Abstract: Multiyear observational data (obtained at the mobile railroad laboratory in the course of the 1995–2010 TROICA experiments) on the composition and state of the atmosphere were used to study the features of both spatial and temporal variations in the contents of trace gases in the surface air layer over Russian cities. The obtained characteristics of urban air noticeably differ from those obtained at stationary stations. The emission fluxes of NOx, CO, and CH4 and their integral emissions from large cities have been estimated on the basis of observational data obtained at the mobile laboratory. The values of these emission fluxes reflect the state of urban infrastructure. The integral urban emissions of CO depend on the city size and vary from 50 Gg yr−1 for Yaroslavl to 130 Gg yr−1 for Yekaterinburg. For most cities, they agree with the EDGAR v4.2 data within the limits of experimental error. The agreement is worse for the emissions of NOx. The EDGAR v4.2 data on the emissions of CH4 seem to be overestimated..

Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region (Xu et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JD024713/abstract

Abstract: In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol mass and number concentrations in the pan-Arctic (60°N-90°N) region, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM, version 1.2.1). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol mass concentration by roughly 200% at Barrow and 100% at Alert and accumulation-mode number concentration by about a factor of 2 at Barrow and more than a factor of 10 at Alert in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The magnitude of sea salt aerosol mass and number concentrations at the surface in Barrow during winter simulated by the model configuration that includes this parameterization agrees better with observations by 48% and 12%, respectively, than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. At Alert, the simulation with this parameterization overestimates observed sea salt aerosol mass concentration by 150% during winter in contrast to the underestimation of 63% in the simulation without this frost flower source, while it produces particle number concentration about 14% closer to observation than the standard CESM simulation. However, because the CESM version used here underestimates transported sulfate in winter, the reference accumulation-mode number concentrations at Alert are also underestimated. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases sea salt aerosol optical depth by 10% in the pan-Arctic region and results in a small cooling at the surface. The increase in salt aerosol mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration at supersaturation of 0.1%, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 1.8 W m−2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate. This regional average longwave warming due to the presence of clouds attributed to frost flower sea salts is roughly half of previous observed surface longwave fluxes and cloud-forcing estimates reported in Alaska, implying that the longwave enhancement due to frost flower salts may be comparable to those estimated for anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Since the potential frost flower area is parameterized as the maximum possible region on which frost flowers grow for the modeled atmospheric temperature and sea ice conditions and the model underestimates the number of accumulation-mode particles from mid-latitude anthropogenic sources transported in winter, the calculated aerosol indirect effect of frost flower sea salts in this work can be regarded as an upper bound.

Early detection of volcanic hazard by lidar measurement of carbon dioxide (Fiorani et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-016-2209-0

Abstract: Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidars has been undertaken at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. A differential absorption lidar instrument will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar). It is based on injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser, double-grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing and optical parametric amplifier. BILLI is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE (BRIDging the gap between Gas Emissions and geophysical observations at active volcanos). It scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Naples, Italy) and Stromboli Volcano (Sicily, Italy) during field campaigns carried out from October 13 to 17, 2014, and from June 24 to 29, 2015, respectively. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater areas. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar. This result represents the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on active volcanos and shows the high potential of laser remote sensing in early detection of volcanic hazard.

Other papers

Validation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor product (Wang et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11379/2016/

Long-term visibility variation in Athens (1931–2013): a proxy for local and regional atmospheric aerosol loads (Founda et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/11219/2016/

Particulate air pollution from wildfires in the Western US under climate change (Liu et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1762-6

Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States (Zhang et al. 2016) http://www.pnas.org/content/113/36/10025.short

Radon as a tracer of atmospheric influences on traffic-related air pollution in a small inland city (Williams et al. 2016) http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/30967

Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809516301995

The importance of non-fossil sources in carbonaceous aerosols in a megacity of central China during the 2013 winter haze episode: A source apportionment constrained by radiocarbon and organic tracers (Liu et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016306677

Estimating Minimum Detection Times for Satellite Remote Sensing of Trends in Mean and Extreme Precipitable Water Vapor (Roman et al. 2016) http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0303.1

A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean (Butler et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10899/2016/

Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China (Sun et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10637/2016/

Snow Covered Soils Produce N2O that is Lost from Forested Catchments (Enanga et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JG003411/abstract

Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK (Helfter et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10543/2016/

Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau (Mousavi et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00703-016-0474-9

Long-term variation of stratospheric aerosols observed with lidars over Tsukuba, Japan from 1982 and Lauder, New Zealand from 1992 to 2015 (Sakai et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025132/abstract

The natural oscillations in stratospheric ozone observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at the NDACC station Bern (Moreira et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10455/2016/

A biogenic CO2 flux adjustment scheme for the mitigation of large-scale biases in global atmospheric CO2 analyses and forecasts (Agustí-Panareda et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10399/2016/

Relationship of ground-level ozone with synoptic weather conditions in Chicago (Jing et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212095516300335

Global detection of absorbing aerosols over the ocean in the red and near infrared spectral region (Waquet et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025163/abstract

Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver Julesburg basin in July and August 2014 (Halliday et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JD025327/abstract

Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data (Osman et al. 2016) http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/10263/2016/

Posted in Adaptation & Mitigation, Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – climate change impacts on biosphere (September 14, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 14, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on biosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.

Highlights

Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition inthe face of sea-ice loss (Dey et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13499/abstract

Abstract: Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice break-up, which forces polar bears into near-shore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and seaduck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents, and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing, and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice break-up dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators, and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have non-linear responses to changes in climate, and provides important predictions of ecology change in Arctic ecosystems.

Lizards fail to plastically adjust nesting behavior or thermal tolerance as needed to buffer populations from climate warming (Telemaco et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13476/abstract

Abstract: Although observations suggest the potential for phenotypic plasticity to allow adaptive responses to climate change, few experiments have assessed that potential. Modeling suggests that Sceloporus tristichus lizards will need increased nest depth, shade cover, or embryonic thermal tolerance to avoid reproductive failure resulting from climate change. To test for such plasticity, we experimentally examined how maternal temperatures affect nesting behavior and embryonic thermal sensitivity. The temperature regime that females experienced while gravid did not affect nesting behavior, but warmer temperatures at the time of nesting reduced nest depth. Additionally, embryos from heat-stressed mothers displayed increased sensitivity to high-temperature exposure. Simulations suggest that critically low temperatures, rather than high temperatures, historically limit development of our study population. Thus, the plasticity needed to buffer this population has not been under selection. Plasticity will likely fail to compensate for ongoing climate change when such change results in novel stressors.

Adapt, move, or die – how will tropical coral reef fishes cope with ocean warming? (Habary et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13488/abstract

Abstract: Previous studies hailed thermal tolerance and the capacity for organisms to acclimate and adapt as the primary pathways for species survival under climate change. Here we challenge this theory. Over the past decade more than 365 tropical stenothermal fish species have been documented moving pole-ward, away from ocean warming hotspots where temperatures 2-3 °C above long-term annual means can compromise critical physiological processes. We examined the capacity of a model species – a thermally-sensitive coral reef fish, Chromis viridis (Pomacentridae) – to use preference behaviour to regulate its body temperature. Movement could potentially circumvent the physiological stress response associated with elevated temperatures and may be a strategy relied upon before genetic adaptation can be effectuated. Individuals were maintained at one of six temperatures (23, 25, 27, 29, 31 and 33 °C) for at least six weeks. We compared the relative importance of acclimation temperature to changes in upper critical thermal limits, aerobic metabolic scope, and thermal preference. While acclimation temperature positively affected the upper critical thermal limit, neither aerobic metabolic scope nor thermal preference exhibited such plasticity. Importantly, when given the choice to stay in a habitat reflecting their acclimation temperatures or relocate, fish acclimated to end-of-century predicted temperatures (i.e., 31 or 33 °C) preferentially sought out cooler temperatures, those equivalent to long-term summer averages in their natural habitats (~29 °C). This was also the temperature providing the greatest aerobic metabolic scope and body condition across all treatments. Consequently, acclimation can confer plasticity in some performance traits, but may be an unreliable indicator of the ultimate survival and distribution of mobile stenothermal species under global warming. Conversely, thermal preference can arise long before, and remain long after, the harmful effects of elevated ocean temperatures take hold and may be the primary driver of the escalating pole-ward migration of species.

Projections of climate change impacts on central America tropical rainforest (Lyra et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1790-2

Abstract: Tropical rainforest plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for a large part of global net primary productivity and contributing to CO2 sequestration. The objective of this work is to simulate potential changes in the rainforest biome in Central America subject to anthropogenic climate change under two emissions scenarios, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The use of a dynamic vegetation model and climate change scenarios is an approach to investigate, assess or anticipate how biomes respond to climate change. In this work, the Inland dynamic vegetation model was driven by the Eta regional climate model simulations. These simulations accept boundary conditions from HadGEM2-ES runs in the two emissions scenarios. The possible consequences of regional climate change on vegetation properties, such as biomass, net primary production and changes in forest extent and distribution, were investigated. The Inland model projections show reductions in tropical forest cover in both scenarios. The reduction of tropical forest cover is greater in RCP8.5. The Inland model projects biomass increases where tropical forest remains due to the CO2 fertilization effect. The future distribution of predominant vegetation shows that some areas of tropical rainforest in Central America are replaced by savannah and grassland in RCP4.5. Inland projections under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a net primary productivity reduction trend due to significant tropical forest reduction, temperature increase, precipitation reduction and dry spell increments, despite the biomass increases in some areas of Costa Rica and Panama. This study may provide guidance to adaptation studies of climate change impacts on the tropical rainforests in Central America.

Interactive effects of temperature and pCO2 on sponges: from the cradle to the grave (Bennett et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13474/abstract

Abstract: As atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise, associated ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) are predicted to cause declines in reef-building corals globally, shifting reefs from coral-dominated systems to those dominated by less sensitive species. Sponges are important structural and functional components of coral reef ecosystems, but despite increasing field based evidence that sponges may be ‘winners’ in response to environmental degradation, our understanding of how they respond to the combined effects of OW and OA is limited. To determine the tolerance of adult sponges to climate change, four abundant Great Barrier Reef species were experimentally exposed to OW and OA levels predicted for 2100, under two CO2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The impact of OW and OA on early life history stages was also assessed for one of these species to provide a more holistic view of species impacts. All species were generally unaffected by conditions predicted under RCP6.0, although environmental conditions projected under RCP8.5 caused significant adverse effects; with elevated temperature decreasing the survival of all species, increasing levels of tissue necrosis and bleaching, elevating respiration rates and decreasing photosynthetic rates. OA alone had little adverse effect, even under RCP8.5 concentrations. Importantly, the interactive effect of OW and OA varied between species with different nutritional modes, with elevated pCO2 exacerbating temperature stress in heterotrophic species but mitigating temperature stress in phototrophic species. This antagonistic interaction was reflected by reduced mortality, necrosis and bleaching of phototrophic species in the highest OW/OA treatment. Survival and settlement success of C. foliascens larvae were unaffected by experimental treatments, and juvenile sponges exhibited greater tolerance to OW than their adult counterparts. With elevated pCO2 providing phototrophic species with protection from elevated temperature, across different life-stages, climate change may ultimately drive a shift in the composition of sponge assemblages towards a dominance of phototrophic species.

Other papers

Stability in a changing world – palm community dynamics in the hyperdiverse western Amazon over 17 years (Olivares et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13494/abstract

Recent climate hiatus revealed dual control by temperature and drought on the stem growth of Mediterranean Quercus ilex (Lempereur et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13495/abstract

Environmental constraints on Holocene cold-water coral reef growth off Norway: Insights from a multi-proxy approach (Raddatz et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016PA002974/abstract

Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change (Hansen et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13462/abstract

Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University (Klimienė et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-016-1211-2

Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska (Sloat et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13466/abstract

Diatom assemblages reveal regional-scale differences in lake responses to recent climate change at the boreal-tundra ecotone, Manitoba, Canada (Shinneman et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10933-016-9911-5

Temperature sensitivity thresholds to warming and cooling in phenophases of alpine plants (Meng et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-016-1802-2

Relationships between climate, topography, water use and productivity in two key Mediterranean forest types with different water-use strategies (Helman et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303732

Ant assemblages have darker and larger members in cold environments (Bishop et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geb.12516/abstract

Spring blooms in the Baltic Sea have weakened but lengthened from 2000 to 2014 (Groetsch et al. 2016) http://www.biogeosciences.net/13/4959/2016/

Current and projected global distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi, one of the world’s worst plant pathogens (Burgess et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13492/abstract

Assessing drought-driven mortality trees with physiological process-based models (Hendrik & Maxime, 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303744

Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism (Kraemer et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13459/abstract

Additive effects of temperature and infection with an acanthocephalan parasite on the shredding activity of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda): the importance of aggregative behavior (Labaude et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13490/abstract

Growth of northern deciduous trees under increasing atmospheric humidity: possible mechanisms behind the growth retardation (Sellin et al. 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-016-1042-z

Responses of net primary productivity to phenological dynamics in the Tibetan Plateau, China (Wang et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303756

Variation in White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) diet along a climatic gradient and across rural-to-urban landscapes in North Africa (Chenchouni, 2016) http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00484-016-1232-x

Species-specific responses to climate change and community composition determine future calcification rates of Florida Keys reefs (Okazaki et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13481/abstract

Aleppo pine forests from across Spain show drought-induced growth decline and partial recovery (Gazol et al. 2016) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192316303690

Climate change will increase the naturalization risk from garden plants in Europe (Dullinger et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geb.12512/abstract

Coarse climate change projections for species living in a fine-scaled world (Nadeau et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13475/abstract

Confounding effects of spatial variation on shifts in phenology (de Keyzer et al. 2016) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13472/abstract

Climate warming reduces fish production and benthic habitat in Lake Tanganyika, one of the most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems (Cohen et al. 2016) http://www.pnas.org/content/113/34/9563.short

Posted in Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

Papers on micro-organisms in permafrost

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 13, 2016

This is a list of papers on micro-organisms in permafrost. The list is not complete, and will most likely be updated in future in order to make it more thorough and more representative.

Functional Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Ancient Arctic Soil Exposes Diverse Resistance Mechanisms to Modern Antibiotics (Perron et al. 2015) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.”
Citation: Perron GG, Whyte L, Turnbaugh PJ, Goordial J, Hanage WP, Dantas G, et al. (2015) Functional Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Ancient Arctic Soil Exposes Diverse Resistance Mechanisms to Modern Antibiotics. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0069533. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069533.

Molecular characterization of bacteria from permafrost of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica (Bakermans et al. 2014) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “While bacterial communities from McMurdo Dry Valley soils have been studied using molecular techniques, data from permafrost are particularly scarce given the logistical difficulties of sampling. This study examined the molecular diversity and culturability of bacteria in permafrost from the Taylor Valley (TV), Antarctica. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to assess bacterial diversity, while a clone library of the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene was constructed to examine amino acid composition of an essential protein-coding gene. The 16S rRNA gene clone library was dominated by Acidobacteria from Gp6 and Gemmatimonadetes. The rpoB gene clone library (created with primers designed in this study) was also dominated by Acidobacteria. The ability of sequence analyses to garner additional information about organisms represented by TV sequences was explored. Specifically, optimum growth temperature was estimated from the stem GC content of the 16S rRNA gene, while potential cold adaptations within translated rpoB sequences were assessed. These analyses were benchmarked using known psychrophiles and mesophiles. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that many TV sequences could represent organisms capable of activity at low temperatures. Plate counts confirmed that c. 103 cells per gram permafrost remained viable and were culturable, while laboratory respiration assays demonstrated that microbial activity occurred at −5 °C and peaked at 15 °C.”
Citation: Bakermans, C., Skidmore, M. L., Douglas, S. and McKay, C. P. (2014), Molecular characterization of bacteria from permafrost of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 89: 331–346. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12310.

Bacterial growth at −15 °C; molecular insights from the permafrost bacterium Planococcus halocryophilus Or1 (Mykytczuk et al. 2013) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Planococcus halocryophilus strain Or1, isolated from high Arctic permafrost, grows and divides at −15 °C, the lowest temperature demonstrated to date, and is metabolically active at −25 °C in frozen permafrost microcosms. To understand how P. halocryophilus Or1 remains active under the subzero and osmotically dynamic conditions that characterize its native permafrost habitat, we investigated the genome, cell physiology and transcriptomes of growth at −15 °C and 18% NaCl compared with optimal (25 °C) temperatures. Subzero growth coincides with unusual cell envelope features of encrustations surrounding cells, while the cytoplasmic membrane is significantly remodeled favouring a higher ratio of saturated to branched fatty acids. Analyses of the 3.4 Mbp genome revealed that a suite of cold and osmotic-specific adaptive mechanisms are present as well as an amino acid distribution favouring increased flexibility of proteins. Genomic redundancy within 17% of the genome could enable P. halocryophilus Or1 to exploit isozyme exchange to maintain growth under stress, including multiple copies of osmolyte uptake genes (Opu and Pro genes). Isozyme exchange was observed between the transcriptome data sets, with selective upregulation of multi-copy genes involved in cell division, fatty acid synthesis, solute binding, oxidative stress response and transcriptional regulation. The combination of protein flexibility, resource efficiency, genomic plasticity and synergistic adaptation likely compensate against osmotic and cold stresses. These results suggest that non-spore forming P. halocryophilus Or1 is specifically suited for active growth in its Arctic permafrost habitat (ambient temp. ~−16 °C), indicating that such cryoenvironments harbor a more active microbial ecosystem than previously thought.”
Citation: Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Simon J Foote, Chris R Omelon, Gordon Southam, Charles W Greer, Lyle G Whyte, The ISME Journal (2013) 7, 1211–1226; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.8.

Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic (Revich et al. 2012) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.”
Citation: Boris Revich, Nikolai Tokarevich, Alan J. Parkinson, Int J Circumpolar Health 2012, 71: 18792 – http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18792.

On the prospects of microbiological research on mammoth fauna in permafrost (Neustroev, 2012)
Abstract: “Research of mammoth microflora is of current interest in terms of psychrophiles, cryoanabiosis, and the peculiar properties of ecology and evolution of microorganisms. Recovered Bacillus bacteria strains of the mammoths express antagonistic activity against pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Moreover, the strains are antibiotic resistant and salt tolerant. The obtained data is consistent with research on biocoenosis of domestic and wild animals, cryogenic soil, air, atmosphere precipitation, and plants. Having high biological activity, Bacillus bacteria are the dominant group in the microbiocenosis environment in permafrost.”
Citation: M.P. Neustroev, Quaternary International, Volume 255, 26 March 2012, Pages 139–140, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.06.003.

43. Global warming and expanding the range of feral conditions in Yakutia – The coldest region of the North-East Asia (Solomonov et al. 2012)
Abstract: “In Yakutia, there has long been a number of natural foci of infectious human and animal diseases such as tularemia, anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, leptospirosis and others. The circulation of pathogens in nature is closely connected with the peculiarities of natural ecosystems and their animal populations, especially the mass species of birds and mammals and their ecto-and endoparasites. Global warming has caused the expansion to the north of the range of many species of birds and their ectoparasites from the southern parts of the Asia–Pacific region. There was the possibility of the spread causative agent of avian influenza H5N1 dangerous to humans, in-line with those observed in recent decades, global warming and the expansion of the range of animal-carriers and custodians of infectious agents are expanding the range of feral diseases such as rabies, brucellosis,and encephalitis, stable foci of new diseases, including pseudotuberculosis, have appeared in our region. With further advancement of the classical forms of rabies in South Yakutia in the central and northern areas of the Arctic, the counter-propagation form of rabies may occur to the south, with the genetic restructuring of their agents as a result of recombination of genes and new mutations. Melting of permafrost soils and an irrigation of territories can promote “awakening” of the centres, previously widespread in the region, of a malignant anthrax and natural smallpox. There is concern has about the recently established detection of viable, including spore-forming, micro-organisms in the remains of the mammoth fauna of the natural burial sites in the Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments over time. The latter indicates that there is potential for the release of pathogens from the surface of especially dangerous infections from that era (epidemiological echo). Previously, Somov (1974), who worked many years in Chukotka and other regions of the Russian Far East, put forward a hypothesis on the preservation of psychrophilic pathogens infections at low temperatures of the environment in saprophytic state that only if it enters the human body become virulent. In this regard, we suggested in 1980 that “the further development of the northern territories may appear natural foci of new, perhaps previously unknown infectious diseases”. Thus, global warming contributes to increased incidence of especially dangerous infections by expanding the range of animal carriers and disseminators of infection due to possible preservation at low temperatures in the state of saprophytic pathogens in the active state.”
Citation: N.G. Solomonov, V.F. Chernyavskyy, B.M. Kerschengoltz, O.I. Nikiphorov, E.S. Khlebnyy, Cryobiology, Volume 65, Issue 3, December 2012, Pages 353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.07.044.

Thawing of permafrost may disturb historic cattle burial grounds in East Siberia (Revich & Podolnaya, 2011) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Climate warming in the Arctic may increase the risk of zoonoses due to expansion of vector habitats, improved chances of vector survival during winter, and permafrost degradation. Monitoring of soil temperatures at Siberian cryology control stations since 1970 showed correlations between air temperatures and the depth of permafrost layer that thawed during summer season. Between 1900s and 1980s, the temperature of surface layer of permafrost increased by 2–4°C; and a further increase of 3°C is expected. Frequent outbreaks of anthrax caused death of 1.5 million deer in Russian North between 1897 and 1925. Anthrax among people or cattle has been reported in 29,000 settlements of the Russian North, including more than 200 Yakutia settlements, which are located near the burial grounds of cattle that died from anthrax. Statistically significant positive trends in annual average temperatures were established in 8 out of 17 administrative districts of Yakutia for which sufficient meteorological data were available. At present, it is not known whether further warming of the permafrost will lead to the release of viable anthrax organisms. Nevertheless, we suggest that it would be prudent to undertake careful monitoring of permafrost conditions in all areas where an anthrax outbreak had occurred in the past.”
Citation: Boris A. Revich, Marina A. Podolnaya, Global Health Action 2011, 4: 8482 – DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.8482.

Biogeochemistry of permafrost in Central Yakutia (Brouchkov et al. 2011) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Permafrost is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and is as old as hundreds of thousands to millions of years. Frozen ground stores living microorganisms which remain unfrozen in the relatively warm environment (–2…–8 °C) but are immobilized and may be about the age of the host permafrost. A strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from ~3 Ma permafrost and its 16S rDNA sequence was identified. A large group of microorganisms including fungi was isolated from the wedge ice. Permafrost deposits contain invertase, urease, katalase and dehydrogenase.”
Citation: A.V. Brouchkov, V.P. Melnikov, M.V. Schelchkova, G.I. Griva, V.E. Repin, E.V. Brenner, M. Tanaka, EARTH CRYOSPHERE, 2011, Vol. XV, № 4, p. 79-87.

Multi-locus real-time PCR for quantitation of bacteria in the environment reveals Exiguobacterium to be prevalent in permafrost (Rodrigues & Tiedje, 2007) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “We developed a multi-locus quantitative PCR approach to minimize problems of precision, sensitivity and primer specificity for quantifying a targeted microbial group in nature. This approach also avoids a systematic error in population quantitation when 16S rRNA genes are used because of copy number heterogeneity. Specific primers were designed to assess the abundance of psychrotrophic and mesophilic Exiguobacterium spp. that excluded the thermophilic members of the genus. The chosen primers targeted genes for DNA gyrase B (gyrB), the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (rpoB) and a hypothetical gene so far found only in this group. The results demonstrate that the multiple primer approach provides a more reliable estimate of population density; that the targeted Exiguobacterium group is found at a median density of 50 000 gene copies per μg of total community DNA in 27 of 29 permafrost soils but was found in only one of the four temperate and tropical soils tested.”
Citation: Rodrigues, D. F. and Tiedje, J. M. (2007), Multi-locus real-time PCR for quantitation of bacteria in the environment reveals Exiguobacterium to be prevalent in permafrost. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 59: 489–499. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00233.x.

Diversity and distribution of alkaliphilic psychrotolerant bacteria in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau permafrost region (Zhang et al. 2007)
Abstract: “The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau represents a unique permafrost environment, being a result of high elevation caused by land uplift. And the urgency was that plateau permafrost was degrading rapidly under the current predicted climatic warming scenarios. Hence, the permafrost there was sampled to recover alkaliphilic bacteria populations. The viable bacteria on modified PYGV agar were varied between 102 and 105 CFU/g of dry soil. Forty-eight strains were gained from 18 samples. Through amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phylogenetic analyses, these isolates fell into three categories: high G + C gram positive bacteria (82.3%), low G + C gram positive bacteria (7.2%), and gram negative α-proteobacteria (10.5%). The strains could grow at pH values ranging from 6.5 to 10.5 with optimum pH in the range of 9–9.5. Their growth temperatures were below 37°C and the optima ranging from 10 to 15°C. All strains grew well when NaCl concentration was below 15%. These results indicate that there are populations of nonhalophilic alkaliphilic psychrotolerant bacteria within the permafrost of the Qinhai-Tibet plateau. The abilities of many of the strains to produce extracellular protease, amylase and cellulase suggest that they might be of potential value for biotechnological exploitation.”
Citation: Zhang, G., Ma, X., Niu, F. et al. Extremophiles (2007) 11: 415. doi:10.1007/s00792-006-0055-9.

Characterization of the microbial diversity in a permafrost sample from the Canadian high Arctic using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods (Steven et al. 2007) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methodologies (Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses) was used to determine the microbial diversity present within a geographically distinct high Arctic permafrost sample. Culturable Bacteria isolates, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria with spore-forming Firmicutes being the most abundant; the majority of the isolates (19/23) were psychrotolerant, some (11/23) were halotolerant, and three isolates grew at −5°C. A Bacteria 16S rRNA gene library containing 101 clones was composed of 42 phylotypes related to diverse phylogenetic groups including the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cytophaga – Flavobacteria – Bacteroides, Planctomyces and Gemmatimonadetes; the bacterial 16S rRNA gene phylotypes were dominated by Actinobacteria- and Proteobacteria-related sequences. An Archaea 16S rRNA gene clone library containing 56 clones was made up of 11 phylotypes and contained sequences related to both of the major Archaea domains (Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota); the majority of sequences in the Archaea library were related to halophilic Archaea. Characterization of the microbial diversity existing within permafrost environments is important as it will lead to a better understanding of how microorganisms function and survive in such extreme cryoenvironments.”
Citation: Steven, B., Briggs, G., McKay, C. P., Pollard, W. H., Greer, C. W. and Whyte, L. G. (2007), Characterization of the microbial diversity in a permafrost sample from the Canadian high Arctic using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 59: 513–523. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00247.x.

Microbial ecology and biodiversity in permafrost (Steven et al. 2006) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Permafrost represents 26% of terrestrial soil ecosystems; yet its biology, essentially microbiology, remains relatively unexplored. The permafrost environment is considered extreme because indigenous microorganisms must survive prolonged exposure to subzero temperatures and background radiation for geological time scales in a habitat with low water activity and extremely low rates of nutrient and metabolite transfer. Yet considerable numbers and biodiversity of bacteria exist in permafrost, some of which may be among the most ancient viable life on Earth. This review describes the permafrost environment as a microbial habitat and reviews recent studies examining microbial biodiversity found in permafrost as well as microbial growth and activity at ambient in situ subzero temperatures. These investigations suggest that functional microbial ecosystems exist within the permafrost environment and may have important implications on global biogeochemical processes as well as the search for past or extant life in permafrost presumably present on Mars and other bodies in our solar system.”
Citation: Steven, B., Léveillé, R., Pollard, W.H. et al. Extremophiles (2006) 10: 259. doi:10.1007/s00792-006-0506-3.

Characterization of potential stress responses in ancient Siberian permafrost psychroactive bacteria (Ponder et al. 2005) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Past studies of cold-acclimated bacteria have focused primarily on organisms not capable of sub-zero growth. Siberian permafrost isolates Exiguobacterium sp. 255-15 and Psychrobacter sp. 273-4, which grow at subzero temperatures, were used to study cold-acclimated physiology. Changes in membrane composition and exopolysaccharides were defined as a function of growth at 24, 4 and −2.5 °C in the presence and absence of 5% NaCl. As expected, there was a decrease in fatty acid saturation and chain length at the colder temperatures and a further decrease in the degree of saturation at higher osmolarity. A shift in carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance occurred at 4 versus 24 °C growth, perhaps due to changes in the membrane transport. Some carbon substrates were used uniquely at 4 °C and, in general, increased antibiotic sensitivity was observed at 4 °C. All the permafrost strains tested were resistant to long-term freezing (1 year) and were not particularly unique in their UVC tolerance. Most of the tested isolates had moderate ice nucleation activity, and particularly interesting was the fact that the Gram-positive Exiguobacterium showed some soluble ice nucleation activity. In general the features measured suggest that the Siberian organisms have adapted to the conditions of long-term freezing at least for the temperatures of the Kolyma region which are −10 to −12 °C where intracellular water is likely not frozen.”
Citation: Monica A. Ponder, Sarah J. Gilmour, Peter W. Bergholz, Carol A. Mindock, Rawle Hollingsworth, Michael F. Thomashow, James M. Tiedje, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 53, Issue 1, Pp. 103 – 115, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsec.2004.12.003.

Long-term persistence of bacterial DNA (Willerslev et al. 2004) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “The persistence of bacterial DNA over geological timespans remains a contentious issue. In direct contrast to in vitro based predictions, bacterial DNA and even culturable cells have been reported from various ancient specimens many million years (Ma) old. As both ancient DNA studies and the revival of microorganisms are known to be susceptible to contamination, it is concerning that these results have not been independently replicated to confirm their authenticity. Furthermore, they show no obvious relationship between sample age, and either bacterial composition or DNA persistence, although bacteria are known to differ markedly in hardiness and resistance to DNA degradation. We present the first study of DNA durability and degradation of a broad variety of bacteria preserved under optimal frozen conditions, using rigorous ancient DNA methods. The results demonstrate that non-spore-forming gram-positive (GP) Actinobacteria are by far the most durable, out-surviving endospore-formers such as Bacillaceae and Clostridiaceae. The observed DNA degradation rates are close to theoretical calculations, indicating a limit of ca. 400 thousand years (kyr) beyond which PCR amplifications are prevented by the formation of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs).”
Citation: Eske Willerslev, Anders J. Hansen, Regin Rønn, Tina B. Brand, Ian Barnes, Carsten Wiuf, David Gilichinsky, David Mitchell, Alan Cooper, Current Biology, Volume 14, Issue 1, 6 January 2004, Pages R9–R10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2003.12.012.

Reproduction and metabolism at − 10°C of bacteria isolated from Siberian permafrost (Bakermans et al. 2003) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “We report the isolation and properties of several species of bacteria from Siberian permafrost. Half of the isolates were spore-forming bacteria unable to grow or metabolize at subzero temperatures. Other Gram-positive isolates metabolized, but never exhibited any growth at − 10°C. One Gram-negative isolate metabolized and grew at − 10°C, with a measured doubling time of 39 days. Metabolic studies of several isolates suggested that as temperature decreased below + 4°C, the partitioning of energy changes with much more energy being used for cell maintenance as the temperature decreases. In addition, cells grown at − 10°C exhibited major morphological changes at the ultrastructural level.”
Citation: Bakermans, C., Tsapin, A. I., Souza-Egipsy, V., Gilichinsky, D. A. and Nealson, K. H. (2003), Reproduction and metabolism at − 10°C of bacteria isolated from Siberian permafrost. Environmental Microbiology, 5: 321–326. doi:10.1046/j.1462-2920.2003.00419.x.

Low-temperature recovery strategies for the isolation of bacteria from ancient permafrost sediments (Vishnivetskaya et al. 2000) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Permafrost represents a unique ecosystem that has allowed the prolonged survival of certain bacterial lineages at subzero temperatures. To better understand the permafrost microbial community, it is important to identify isolation protocols that optimize the recovery of genetically diverse bacterial lineages. We have investigated the impact of different low-temperature isolation protocols on recovery of aerobic bacteria from northeast Siberian permafrost of variable geologic origin and frozen for 5000 to 3 million years. Low-nutrient media enhanced the quantitative recovery of bacteria, whereas the isolation of diverse morphotypes was maximized on rich media. Cold enrichments done directly in natural, undisturbed permafrost led not only to recovery of increased numbers of bacteria but also to isolation of genotypes not recovered by means of liquid low-temperature enrichments. On the other hand, direct plating and growth at 4°C also led to recovery of diverse genotypes, some of which were not recovered following enrichment. Strains recovered from different permafrost samples were predominantly oligotrophic and non-spore-forming but were otherwise variable from each other in terms of a number of bacteriological characteristics. Our data suggest that a combination of isolation protocols from different permafrost samples should be used to establish a culture-based survey of the different bacterial lineages in permafrost.”
Citation: Vishnivetskaya, T., Kathariou, S., McGrath, J. et al. Extremophiles (2000) 4: 165. doi:10.1007/s007920070031.

Metabolic Activity of Permafrost Bacteria below the Freezing Point (Rivkina et al. 2000) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and −20°C on the basis of incorporation of14C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5°C) to 20 days (−10°C) to ca. 160 days (−20°C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.”
Citation: E. M. Rivkina, E. I. Friedmann, C. P. McKay, D. A. Gilichinsky, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. August 2000 vol. 66 no. 8 3230-3233, doi: 10.1128/AEM.66.8.3230-3233.2000.

Hygienic problems in using permafrost soils for organic waste disposal (Bölter & Höller, 1999) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “This paper reviews the risks on hygienic problems in the northern environments by reindeer slaughter and related waste disposals. Such risks are evident from anticipated possible changes in the socio-economic structure in this region and changes in land use and animal keeping. There are several problems going along with different pathogens and their infection ways. Precautions have to be taken especially for those organisms which can live for long times under dormant stages or which form spores.”
Citation: Manfred Bölter, Christiane Höller, Polarforschung 66 (1/2),61 – 65,1996 (erschienen 1999).

Characterization of Viable Bacteria from Siberian Permafrost by 16S rDNA Sequencing (Shi et al. 1997) [FULL TEXT]
Abstract: “Viable bacteria were found in permafrost core samples from the Kolyma-Indigirka lowland of northeast Siberia. The samples were obtained at different depths; the deepest was about 3 million years old. The average temperature of the permafrost is −10°C. Twenty-nine bacterial isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining, endospore formation, and growth at 30°C. The majority of the bacterial isolates were rod shaped and grew well at 30°C; but two of them did not grow at or above 28°C, and had optimum growth temperatures around 20°C. Thirty percent of the isolates could form endospores. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates fell into four categories: high-GC Gram-positive bacteria, β-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria, and low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. Most high-GC Gram-positive bacteria and β-proteobacteria, and all γ-proteobacteria, came from samples with an estimated age of 1.8–3.0 million years (Olyor suite). Most low-GC Gram-positive bacteria came from samples with an estimated age of 5,000–8,000 years (Alas suite).”
Citation: Shi, T., Reeves, R., Gilichinsky, D. et al. Microb Ecol (1997) 33: 169. doi:10.1007/s002489900019.

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