AGW Observer

Observations of anthropogenic global warming

Archive for July, 2014

New research – July 2014

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on July 31, 2014

My New research stream in Twitter and in Facebook was on a break during July. Below are papers published during July, which would have been included to the stream. There are 186 papers, which makes it 6 papers per day.


The international surface temperature initiative global land surface databank: monthly temperature data release description and methods (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Drivers of decadal hiatus periods in the 20th and 21st Centuries [ABSTRACT]

Contributions of developed and developing countries to global climate forcing and surface temperature change (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Analysis and estimation of the effects of missing values on the calculation of monthly temperature indices [ABSTRACT]

Arctic warming in ERA-Interim and other analyses [ABSTRACT]

Observed cold season changes in a Fennoscandian fell area over the past three decades [ABSTRACT]

Radiative forcing and temperature change at Potsdam between 1893 and 2012 [ABSTRACT]

Modelling the influence of urbanization on the 20th century temperature record of weather station De Bilt (The Netherlands) [ABSTRACT]

Comparison of near–surface air temperatures and MODIS ice–surface temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008–2013) [ABSTRACT]

U.S. daily temperatures: the meaning of extremes in the context of non-normality [ABSTRACT]

Analysis of surface air temperature warming rate of China in the last 50 years (1962–2011) using k-means clustering [ABSTRACT]

Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012 [ABSTRACT]

Upper atmosphere cooling over the past 33 years [ABSTRACT]

The downward influence of stratospheric sudden warmings [ABSTRACT]

Attributing the increase in Northern Hemisphere hot summers since the late 20th century [ABSTRACT]

Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Contribution to Unforced Decadal Global Temperature Variability in Climate Models [ABSTRACT]

Global observations of quasi-zonal bands in microwave sea surface temperature [ABSTRACT]

Joint occurrence of daily temperature and precipitation extreme events over Canada [ABSTRACT]

Spatial and temporal changes in indices of extreme precipitation and temperature for Alaska [ABSTRACT]

Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in China by the CMIP5 Multi-model Ensembles [ABSTRACT]

Observed changes in southwest monsoon rainfall over India during 1901–2011 [ABSTRACT]

Changes in extreme rainfall in the Philippines (1911–2010) linked to global mean temperature and ENSO [ABSTRACT]

Regional rainfall decline in Australia attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and ozone levels [ABSTRACT]

The 30-year TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT) Dataset [ABSTRACT]

Understanding Recent Eastern Horn of Africa Rainfall Variability and Change [ABSTRACT]

Global trends and patterns of drought from space [ABSTRACT]

The impracticality of a universal drought definition [ABSTRACT]

Global meteorological drought – Part 1: Probabilistic monitoring (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Multiscale analysis of three consecutive years of anomalous flooding in Pakistan [ABSTRACT]

Assessment of Bias Assumptions for Climate Models [ABSTRACT]

Do seasonal to decadal climate predictions underestimate the predictability of the real world? [ABSTRACT]

A posteriori adjustment of near-term climate predictions: Accounting for the drift dependence on the initial conditions [ABSTRACT]

Sensitivity of simulated regional Arctic climate to the choice of coupled model domain (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Can a Climate Model Reproduce Extreme Regional Precipitation Events over England and Wales? [ABSTRACT]

Climate change hotspots over South America: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 multi-model datasets [ABSTRACT]

Climatic variations in Central America: further exploration [ABSTRACT]

Long-term variations of ultraviolet radiation in Tibetan Plateau from observation and estimation [ABSTRACT]

Generating Global LAnd Surface Satellite incident shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation products from multiple satellite data [ABSTRACT]

Solar cycle dependence of middle atmosphere temperatures [ABSTRACT]

New evidence on the dimming/brightening phenomenon and decreasing diurnal temperature range in Iran (1961–2009) [ABSTRACT]

Cloud radiative forcing intercomparison between fully coupled CMIP5 models and CERES satellite data (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The diurnal cycle of marine cloud feedback in climate models [ABSTRACT]

Changes in atmospheric aerosol loading retrieved from space-based measurements during the past decade (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The complex response of Arctic aerosol to sea-ice retreat (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Contribution of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to the changing Euro-Mediterranean climate since 1980 [ABSTRACT]

Aerosol radiative forcing from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruptions [ABSTRACT]

Trends in stratospheric ozone derived from merged SAGE II and Odin-OSIRIS satellite observations (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The surface impacts of Arctic stratospheric ozone anomalies (open access) [ABSTRACT]

An analysis of aeolian dust in climate models [ABSTRACT]

Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects [ABSTRACT]

A mechanism for future changes in Hadley circulation strength in CMIP5 climate change simulations [ABSTRACT]

Role of changes in mean temperatures vs. temperature gradients in the recent widening of the Hadley circulation [ABSTRACT]

Role of Climate Feedback in El Niño-like SST Response to Global Warming [ABSTRACT]

Role of the western tropical Pacific in the North Pacific regime shift in the winter of 1998/1999 [ABSTRACT]

The anomalous merging of the African and North Atlantic jet streams during Northern Hemisphere winter of 2010 [ABSTRACT]

Poleward shift in Indian summer monsoon low level jetstream under global warming [ABSTRACT]

Robust Forced Response in South Asian Summer Monsoon in a Future Climate [ABSTRACT]

An in situ-satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity [ABSTRACT]

Urban climatology: History, status and prospects [ABSTRACT]

Climatology for city planning in historical perspective (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Surfing wave climate variability [ABSTRACT]


The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance [ABSTRACT]

Sustained seismic tremors and icequakes detected in the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet [ABSTRACT]

MODIS observed increase in duration and spatial extent of sediment plumes in Greenland fjords (open access) [ABSTRACT]

High-resolution modelling of the seasonal evolution of surface water storage on the Greenland Ice Sheet (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Interannual changes of the floating ice shelf of Petermann Gletscher, North Greenland, from 2000 to 2012 (open access) [ABSTRACT]

GOCE’s view below the ice of Antarctica: Satellite gravimetry confirms improvements in Bedmap2 bedrock knowledge [ABSTRACT]

A high-resolution bedrock map for the Antarctic Peninsula (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Tidal modulation of ice-shelf flow: a viscous model of the Ross Ice Shelf [ABSTRACT]

Constraining past accumulation in the central Pine Island Glacier basin, West Antarctica, using radio-echo sounding [ABSTRACT]

Basal terraces on melting ice shelves [ABSTRACT]

The Randolph Glacier Inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Recent changes of two selected glaciers in Hami Prefecture of eastern Xinjiang and their impact on water resources [ABSTRACT]

Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, New Zealand: Historic length records [ABSTRACT]

Climatic sensitivity of the non-glaciated mountains cryosphere (Tatra Mts., Poland and Slovakia) [ABSTRACT]

The importance of spring atmospheric conditions for predictions of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent [ABSTRACT]

Importance of initial conditions in seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice extent [ABSTRACT]

Modeled Arctic sea ice evolution through 2300 in CMIP5 extended RCPs (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Recent sea ice increase and temperature decrease in the Bering Sea area, Alaska (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Sea ice climatology in the Canadian Western Arctic: thermodynamic versus dynamic controls [ABSTRACT]

Is weaker Arctic sea ice changing the Atlantic water circulation? [ABSTRACT]

The influence of the large scale atmospheric circulation on Antarctic sea ice during ice advance and retreat seasons [ABSTRACT]

Variability of sea-ice in the northern Weddell Sea during the 20th century [ABSTRACT]

Changes in ice phenology characteristics of two Central European steppe lakes from 1926 to 2012 – influences of local weather and large scale oscillation patterns [ABSTRACT]

A record-breaking low ice cover over the Great Lakes during winter 2011/2012: combined effects of a strong positive NAO and La Niña [ABSTRACT]

The temporal and spatial variability in submeter scale surface roughness of seasonal snow in Sodankylä Finnish Lapland in 2009-2010 [ABSTRACT]

Radiocarbon age-offsets in an arctic lake reveal the long-term response of permafrost carbon to climate change [ABSTRACT]

Differential response of carbon fluxes to climate in three peatland ecosystems that vary in the presence and stability of permafrost [ABSTRACT]

Multiple time scale characteristics of permafrost temperature variations along the Qinghai–Xizang Highway [ABSTRACT]

Increasing Summer Drying in North American Ecosystems in Response to Longer Non-frozen Periods [ABSTRACT]

Species distributions shift downward across western North America [ABSTRACT]

Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Northward migration under a changing climate: a case study of blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica) [ABSTRACT]

Tree leaf out response to temperature: comparing field observations, remote sensing, and a warming experiment [ABSTRACT]

Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States [ABSTRACT]

Fifteen-year phenological plant species and meteorological trends in central Italy [ABSTRACT]

Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai–Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest [ABSTRACT]

CO2-Induced Sahel Greening in Three CMIP5 Earth System Models [ABSTRACT]

Phenology and its role in carbon dioxide exchange processes in northern peatlands [ABSTRACT]

Does the temporal mismatch hypothesis match in boreal populations? [ABSTRACT]

Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe [ABSTRACT]

The effects of changing climate on faunal depth distributions determine winners and losers (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Sap-feeding insects on forest trees along latitudinal gradients in northern Europe: a climate-driven patterns [ABSTRACT]

Climatic niche shifts between species’ native and naturalized ranges raise concern for ecological forecasts during invasions and climate change [ABSTRACT]

Multidecadal time series of satellite-detected accumulations of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Effects of climate variability and climate change on the fishing conditions for grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) in the Taiwan Strait (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Clues from the recent past to assess recruitment of Mediterranean small pelagic fishes under sea warming scenarios [ABSTRACT]

Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change [ABSTRACT]

Early development of congeneric sea urchins (Heliocidaris) with contrasting life history modes in a warming and high CO2 ocean [ABSTRACT]

Time of emergence of trends in ocean biogeochemistry (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Variability of oceanic carbon cycle in the North Pacific from seasonal to decadal scales [ABSTRACT]

Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Quantifying the impact of ocean acidification on our future climate (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem [ABSTRACT]

Enhanced acidification of global coral reefs driven by regional biogeochemical feedbacks [ABSTRACT]

Relationships between the history of thermal stress and the relative risk of diseases of Caribbean corals [ABSTRACT]

The cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species winners into losers [ABSTRACT]

Accelerated flooding along the U. S. East Coast: On the impact of sea level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream and NAO (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Sea-level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion [ABSTRACT]

Evidence for long-term memory in sea level [ABSTRACT]

Long-term sea level trends: natural or anthropogenic? [ABSTRACT]

Time and tide: analysis of sea level time series [ABSTRACT]

Assessing the uncertainty in projecting local mean sea level from global temperature [ABSTRACT]

Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea [ABSTRACT]

Forecast cooling of the Atlantic subpolar gyre and associated impacts [ABSTRACT]

Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the 21st century influenced by changes in climate, land use, and atmospheric CO2 [ABSTRACT]

Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment [ABSTRACT]

Consequence of altered nitrogen cycles in the coupled human and ecological system under changing climate: The need for long-term and site-based research [ABSTRACT]

Getting caught with our plants down: the risks of a global crop yield slowdown from climate trends in the next two decades (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Temporal-spatial characteristics of severe drought events and their impact on agriculture on a global scale [ABSTRACT]

Maize growing duration was prolonged across China in the past three decades under the combined effects of temperature, agronomic management and cultivar shift [ABSTRACT]

Reductions in India’s crop yield due to ozone [ABSTRACT]

Winter crop sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability in central India [ABSTRACT]

Integrated assessment of China’s agricultural vulnerability to climate change: a multi-indicator approach [ABSTRACT]

On the relation between weather-related disaster impacts, vulnerability and climate change (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Spatio-temporal modelling of heat stress and climate change implications for the Murray dairy region, Australia [ABSTRACT]

Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010 [ABSTRACT]

Shifts in the seasonal distribution of deaths in Australia, 1968–2007 [ABSTRACT]


A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America [ABSTRACT]

Quantifying the biophysical climate change mitigation potential of Canada’s forest sector (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Considerable methane uptake by alpine grasslands despite the cold climate: In situ measurements on the central Tibetan Plateau, 2008–2013 [ABSTRACT]

Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest? (open access) [ABSTRACT]

History of land use in India during 1880–2010: Large-scale land transformations reconstructed from satellite data and historical archives (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Synthesis and Review: Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Global and regional trends in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock [ABSTRACT]

Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies [ABSTRACT]

A bibliometric investigation of life cycle assessment research in the web of science databases [ABSTRACT]

Life cycle carbon footprint of the packaging and transport of New Zealand kiwifruit [ABSTRACT]

How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US [ABSTRACT]

New perspectives on nuclear power—Generation IV nuclear energy systems to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation and support nuclear disarmament [ABSTRACT]

The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Where, when and how much wind is available? A provincial-scale wind resource assessment for China [ABSTRACT]

Market risk in carbon market: an empirical analysis of the EUA and sCER [ABSTRACT]

‘Maintaining planetary systems’ or ‘concentrating global power?’ High stakes in contending framings of climate geoengineering [ABSTRACT]

A multi-model assessment of regional climate disparities caused by solar geoengineering (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The politics of Amazonian deforestation: environmental policy and climate change knowledge [ABSTRACT]

Do weather fluctuations cause people to seek information about climate change? [ABSTRACT]

Should the moral core of climate issues be emphasized or downplayed in public discourse? Three ways to successfully manage the double-edged sword of moral communication [ABSTRACT]

Public views on the dangers and importance of climate change: predicting climate change beliefs in the United States through income moderated by party identification [ABSTRACT]

How to communicate the scientific consensus on climate change: plain facts, pie charts or metaphors? [ABSTRACT]

The IPCC and treatment of uncertainties: topics and sources of dissensus [ABSTRACT]

The role of social norms on preferences towards climate change policies: A meta-analysis [ABSTRACT]

Motivating mitigation: when health matters more than climate change (open access) [ABSTRACT]

The effect of health benefits on climate change mitigation policies [ABSTRACT]

The Cultural Theory of Risk for Climate Change Adaptation [ABSTRACT]

Climate change adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in the Brazilian Sertão (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Climate change impacts and adaptation in South Africa (open access) [ABSTRACT]


Andean elevation control on tropical Pacific climate and ENSO [ABSTRACT]

Recent Ice Ages on Mars: The Role of Radiatively Active Clouds and Cloud Microphysics [ABSTRACT]

Earliest Holocene south Greenland ice-sheet retreat within its late-Holocene extent [ABSTRACT]

Radiocarbon dating of glacial dust layers and soils at Kilimanjaro’s Northern Ice Field [ABSTRACT]

Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth (open access) [ABSTRACT]

February–June temperature variability in western Himalaya, India, since AD 1455 [ABSTRACT]

A quantitative midge-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature from a high-elevation site in central Colorado, USA, for MIS 6 and 5 [ABSTRACT]

John Hardcastle looks at the Timaru loess: Climatic signals are observed, and fragipans [ABSTRACT]

Relative sea-level changes in the Basque coast (northern Spain, Bay of Biscay) during the Holocene and Anthropocene: The Urdaibai estuary case [ABSTRACT]

A 2000-yr reconstruction of air temperature in the Great Basin of the United States with specific reference to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly [ABSTRACT]

The Rautuvaara section, western Finnish Lapland, revisited – new age constraints indicate a complex Scandinavian Ice Sheet history in northern Fennoscandia during the Weichselian Stage [ABSTRACT]

Straight lines or eccentric eggs? A comparison of radial and spatial ring width measurements and its implications for climate transfer functions [ABSTRACT]

Modelling the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet since the last interglacial (open access) [ABSTRACT]

Summer air temperaturea, reconstructions from the last glacial stage based on rodents from the site Taillis-des-Coteaux (Vienne), Western France [ABSTRACT]


Is there an isotopic signature of the Anthropocene? [ABSTRACT]

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Climate related papers of Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on July 26, 2014

Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964) is well-known to followers of climate science. As an introdution to his work, well worth a read is the paper “On increasing global temperatures: 75 years after Callendar” by Ed Hawkins and Phil Jones (2013). I have created a list of Callendar’s papers relating to climate (including abstracts and links to journal pages and full texts where available):

Callendar, G. S. (1938), An attempt to frame a working hypothesis on the cause of the glacial periods on an atmospheric basis, Journal of Geology 64: 223-40.

Callendar, G. S. (1938), The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on temperature. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 64: 223–240. doi: 10.1002/qj.49706427503. [abstract, full text]
“By fuel combustion man has added about 150,000 million tons of carbon dioxide to the air during the past half century. The author estimates from the best available data that approximately three quarters of this has remained in the atmosphere.

The radiation absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide and water vapour are used to show the effect of carbon dioxide on “sky radiation.” From this the increase in mean temperature, due to the artificial production of carbon dioxide, is estimated to be at the rate of 0.003°C. per year at the present time.

The temperature observations a t zoo meteorological stations are used to show that world temperatures have actually increased at an average rate of 0.005°C. per year during the past half century.”

Callendar, G. S. (1939), The Composition of the Atmosphere through the Ages, Meteorological Magazine, 74, 33–39.

Callendar, G. S. (1940), Variations of the amount of carbon dioxide in different air currents. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 66: 395–400. doi: 10.1002/qj.49706628705. [abstract]
“The first measurements to determine the composition of the atmosphere were made at least 180 years ago, but chemists worked more than a century before they obtained really accurate values for the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.

In the following: a brief review is given of the present state of knowledge concerning the variations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, together with some observations which appear to show that the amount of this gas in the air has increased of late years.”

Callendar, G. S. (1941), Infra-red absorption by carbon dioxide, with special reference to atmospheric radiation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 67: 263–275. doi: 10.1002/qj.49706729105. [abstract]
“Recent additions to our knowledge of the structure of the water vapour spectrum (Elsasser 1940), and the atmospheric transmission of infra-red radiation (Adel 1939), have tended to emphasise the importance of atmospheric radiation as a fundamental factor in meteorological processes.

Normally the greater part of this radiation comes from the large quantities of water vapour present in the air, but there are certain important regions of the atmosphere where the amount of water vapour is extremely small and where a large part of the radiation comes from the carbon dioxide always present.

It is probable that measurements of carbon dioxide absorption and radiation have been more numerous and extensive than for most other gases, but these observational data are scattered through the scientific literature of many decades and in several languages; also they are usually presented in a form which cannot be applied to atmospheric conditions and which requires much coordination and simplification before it can be used for the calculation of energy exchanges. In the following pages these measurements are reviewed and the different sets of observations are compared with the aid of a simple function which will give the absorption by any quantity of CO2 in the different wave bands.”

Callendar, G. S. (1942), Air temperature and the growth of glaciers. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 68: 57–60. doi: 10.1002/qj.49706829307. [abstract] (only first page preview available)

G B B M Sutherland and G S Callendar (1942), The infra-red spectra of atmospheric gases other than water vapour, Rep. Prog. Phys. 9 18 doi:10.1088/0034-4885/9/1/304. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1944), Variations of winter temperature during eight centuries. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 70: 221–224. doi: 10.1002/qj.49607030510. [abstract] (only first page preview available)

Callendar, G. S. (1944), Glacial fluctuations. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 70: 231–232. doi: 10.1002/qj.49707030515. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1947), The Climate of Netherlands. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc..

Callendar, G. S. (1948), Atmospheric Radiation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 74: 81–82. doi: 10.1002/qj.49707431914. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1949), Can Carbon Dioxide Influence Climate?. Weather, 4: 310–314. doi: 10.1002/j.1477-8696.1949.tb00952.x. [abstract] (only first page preview available)

Callendar, G. S. (1950), Note on the relation between the height of the firn line and the dimensions of a glacier. Journal of Glaciology, 1, 8, 459-461. [full text]

Callendar, G. S. (1951), The effect of the altitude of the firn area on a glacier’s response to temperature variations. Journal of Glaciology, 1, 10, 573-576. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1952), Air temperature and solar radiation. Journal of Glaciology, 2, 11, 69. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1952), The Greenwich temperature record. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 78: 265–266. doi: 10.1002/qj.49707833614. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1955), A close parallel between temperature fluctuations in east Canada and Britain. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 81: 98–99. doi: 10.1002/qj.49708134714. [abstract] (no abstract available)

Callendar, G. S. (1957), The Effect of Fuel Combustion on the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere. Tellus, 9: 421–422. doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1957.tb01899.x. [abstract, full text]

Callendar, G. S. (1958), On the present climatic fluctuation, Meteorol. Mag. 87: 204-07.

Callendar, G. S. (1958), On the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere. Tellus, 10: 243–248. doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1958.tb02009.x. [abstract, full text]
“Of late years there has been much interest in the effect of human activities on the natural circulation of carbon. This demands a knowledge of the amount of CO2 in atmosphere both now and in the immediate past. Here the average amount obtained by 30 of the most extensive series of observations between 1866 and 1956 is presented, and the reliability of the 19th century measurements discussed. A base value of 290 p.p.m. is proposed for the year 1900. Since then the observations show a rising trend which is similar in amount to the addition from fuel combustion. This result is not in accordance with recent radio carbon data, but the reasons for the discrepancy are obscure, and it is concluded that much further observational data is required to clarify this problem. Some old values, showing a remarkable fall of CO2 in high southern latitudes, are assembled for comparison with the anticipated new measurements, to be taken in this zone during the Geophysical Year.”

Callendar, G. S. (1961), Temperature fluctuations and trends over the earth. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 87: 1–12. doi: 10.1002/qj.49708737102. [abstract]
“The annual temperature deviations at over 400 meteorological stations are combined on a regional basis to give the integrated fluctuations over large areas and zones. These are shown in graphical form, and it is concluded that a solar or atmospheric dust hypothesis is necessary to explain the world-wide fluctuations of a few years duration. An important change in the relationships of the zonal fluctuations has occurred since 1920. The overall temperature trends found from the data are considered in relation to the homogeneity of recording, and also to the evidence of glacial recession in different zones. It is concluded that the rising trend, shown by the instruments during recent decades, is significant from the Arctic to about 45°S lat., but quite small in most regions below 35°N. and not yet apparent in some. It is thought that the regional and zonal distribution of recent climatic trends is incompatible with the hypothesis of increased solar heating as the cause. On the other hand, the major features of this distribution are not incompatible with the hypothesis of increased carbon dioxide radiation, if the rate of atmospheric mixing between the hemispheres is a matter of decades rather than years.”

Landsberg, H. E., Mitchell, J. M. and Callendar, G. S. (1961), Temperature fluctuations and trends over the earth. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 87: 435–437. doi: 10.1002/qj.49708737316. [abstract] (no abstract available – this might be a comment from Landsberg & Mitchell and a reply from Callendar relating to his previous paper)

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