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New research – general climate science (August 23, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 23, 2016

Some of the latest papers on general climate science (i.e. papers that haven’t been included to any other categories) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Reconsidering meteorological seasons in a changing climate (Kutta & Hubbart, 2016)

Abstract: Traditional definitions of seasonality are insufficient to reflect changes associated with a swiftly changing climate. Regional changes in season onset and length using surface based metrics are well documented, but hemispheric assessments using tropospheric metrics has received little attention. The long-term average of six-hourly analyses of temperature on isobaric surfaces, provided by the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, is separated here into quartiles to determine climatologic seasonal end dates. Annual season end dates are defined as the date when the 5-day moving average rose above (winter and spring) or fell below (summer and fall) the long term mean. Climatic season end dates fall between meteorological and astronomical season end dates. The length of summer has increased by an average of 13 days and the length of winter has decreased by an average of 20 days, which are more substantial seasonal changes than previous studies. These changes in season length have occurred largely within the past 36 years, corresponding to most aggressive anthropogenic climate change. Results show that the planetary boundary layer is warming at nearly twice the rate of the free troposphere. The spatial distribution of warming suggests that topographically induced weather systems are collocated with maxima or minima in free tropospheric and boundary layer temperature slope. Furthermore, regions of greatest ensemble spread are not collocated with relative maxima or minima in free troposphere or boundary layer temperature slope. This improved assessment of seasonal transitions is useful to climatologists, agricultural land managers, and scientists interested in seasonally driven biology, hydrology and biogeochemical processes.

Mikhail Budyko’s (1920–2001) contributions to Global Climate Science: from heat balances to climate change and global ecology (Oldfield, 2016)

Abstract: Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920–2001) was a Soviet climatologist perhaps best known in the West for his contribution to understandings of climate change. He acted as director of the Main Geophysical Observatory (named after A.I. Voeikov) in Leningrad (St Petersburg) from 1954 and played an active role in advancing Soviet climate agendas within an international context. Three main stages in the development of Budyko’s work related to climate systems and global ecology (late 1940s-mid 1980s) are identified. The first period encompasses his early efforts devoted to understanding and quantifying the interrelationship between the lower atmosphere and the earth’s surface. This stage of his career was also characterized by a growing interest in regional- and global-scale processes, and was underpinned by collaborative work involving climatologists, physical geographers, and other cognate scientists. The second stage highlights the broadening of his global interest in order to engage more deeply with both natural and anthropogenic climatic and environmental change. The third stage reflects on the development of his expansive and evolutionary approach to the biosphere, and his insight into the formative role of climate with respect to the functioning of physical and biological processes. Furthermore, this later work also exhibited a strong belief in the ability of humankind to reflect wisely on its growing influence on the physical environment and respond appropriately.

Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends (Stopa, Ardhuin & Girard-Ardhuin, 2016)

Abstract: Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind strength, and wind direction, creating distinct features in the wind seas and swells. The altimeters and model show that the reduction of sea ice coverage causes increasing wave heights instead of the wind. However, trends are convoluted by interannual climate oscillations like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In the Nordic Greenland Sea the NAO influences the decreasing wind speeds and wave heights. Swells are becoming more prevalent and wind-sea steepness is declining. The satellite data show the sea ice minimum occurs later in fall when the wind speeds increase. This creates more favorable conditions for wave development. Therefore we expect the ice freeze-up in fall to be the most critical season in the Arctic and small changes in ice cover, wind speeds, and wave heights can have large impacts to the evolution of the sea ice throughout the year. It is inconclusive how important wave–ice processes are within the climate system, but selected events suggest the importance of waves within the marginal ice zone.

Flight paths of seabirds soaring over the ocean surface enable measurement of fine-scale wind speed and direction (Yonehara et al. 2016)

Abstract: Ocean surface winds are an essential factor in understanding the physical interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. Surface winds measured by satellite scatterometers and buoys cover most of the global ocean; however, there are still spatial and temporal gaps and finer-scale variations of wind that may be overlooked, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we show that flight paths of soaring seabirds can be used to estimate fine-scale (every 5 min, ~5 km) ocean surface winds. Fine-scale global positioning system (GPS) positional data revealed that soaring seabirds flew tortuously and ground speed fluctuated presumably due to tail winds and head winds. Taking advantage of the ground speed difference in relation to flight direction, we reliably estimated wind speed and direction experienced by the birds. These bird-based wind velocities were significantly correlated with wind velocities estimated by satellite-borne scatterometers. Furthermore, extensive travel distances and flight duration of the seabirds enabled a wide range of high-resolution wind observations, especially in coastal areas. Our study suggests that seabirds provide a platform from which to measure ocean surface winds, potentially complementing conventional wind measurements by covering spatial and temporal measurement gaps.

The Climate of Titan (Mitchell & Lora, 2016)

Abstract: Over the past decade, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has revolutionized our understanding of Titan and its climate. Veiled in a thick organic haze, Titan’s visible appearance belies an active, seasonal weather cycle operating in the lower atmosphere. Here we review the climate of Titan, as gleaned from observations and models. Titan’s cold surface temperatures (∼90 K) allow methane to form clouds and precipitation analogously to Earth’s hydrologic cycle. Because of Titan’s slow rotation and small size, its atmospheric circulation falls into a regime resembling Earth’s tropics, with weak horizontal temperature gradients. A general overview of how Titan’s atmosphere responds to seasonal forcing is provided by estimating a number of climate-related timescales. Titan lacks a global ocean, but methane is cold-trapped at the poles in large seas, and models indicate that weak baroclinic storms form at the boundary of Titan’s wet and dry regions. Titan’s saturated troposphere is a substantial reservoir of methane, supplied by deep convection from the summer poles. A significant seasonal cycle, first revealed by observations of clouds, causes Titan’s convergence zone to migrate deep into the summer hemispheres, but its connection to polar convection remains undetermined. Models suggest that downwelling of air at the winter pole communicates upper-level radiative cooling, reducing the stability of the middle troposphere and priming the atmosphere for spring and summer storms when sunlight returns to Titan’s lakes. Despite great gains in our understanding of Titan, many challenges remain. The greatest mystery is how Titan is able to retain an abundance of atmospheric methane with only limited surface liquids, while methane is being irreversibly destroyed by photochemistry. A related mystery is how Titan is able to hide all the ethane that is produced in this process. Future studies will need to consider the interactions between Titan’s atmosphere, surface, and subsurface in order to make further progress in understanding Titan’s complex climate system.

Other papers

Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project (Labe et al. 2016)

Drylands extent and environmental issues. A global approach (Pravalie, 2016)

Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System? (Way et al. 2016)

Royal Navy logbooks as secondary sources and their use in climatic investigations: introducing the log-board (Norrgård, 2016)

Flight paths of seabirds soaring over the ocean surface enable measurement of fine-scale wind speed and direction (Yonehara et al. 2016)

Climatology of cold season lake-effect cloud bands for the North American Great Lakes (Laird et al. 2016)

Homogenization and assessment of observed near-surface wind speed trends across Sweden, 1956-2013 (Minola, Azorin-Molina & Chen, 2016)

Objective identification of multiple large fire climatologies: an application to a Mediterranean ecosystem (Ruffault et al. 2016)

Extension of summer climatic conditions into spring in the Western Mediterranean area (Jansa et al. 2016)

Homogenized Variability of Radiosonde Derived Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height over the Global Land Surface from 1973 to 2014 (Wang & Wang, 2016)

ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the historical marine climate record (Freeman et al. 2016)

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New research – climate models and projections (August 16, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 16, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate models and projections are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


CMIP5 scientific gaps and recommendations for CMIP6 (Stouffer et al. 2016)

Abstract: The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is an ongoing coordinated international activity of numerical experimentation of unprecedented scope and impact on climate science. Its most recent fifth phase, CMIP5, has created nearly two petabytes of output from dozens of experiments performed by dozens of comprehensive climate models available to the climate science research community. In so doing, it has greatly advanced climate science. While CMIP5 has given answers to important science questions, with the help of a community survey we identify and motivate three broad topics here that guided the scientific framework of the next phase of CMIP, i.e. CMIP6:

1.How does the Earth System respond to changes in forcing?

2.What are the origins and consequences of systematic model biases?

3.How can we assess future climate changes given internal climate variability, predictability and uncertainties in scenarios?

CMIP has demonstrated the power of idealized experiments to better understand how the climate system works. We expect that these idealized approaches will continue to contribute to CMIP6. The quantification of radiative forcings and responses was poor and requires new methods and experiments to address this gap. There are a number of systematic model biases that appear in all phases of CMIP which remain a major climate modeling challenge. These biases need increased attention to better understand their origins and consequences through targeted experiments. Improving understanding of the mechanisms underlying internal climate variability for more skillful decadal climate predictions and long-term projections remains another challenge for CMIP6.

Climate change in the next 30 years: What can a convection-permitting model tell us that we did not already know? (Fosser et al. 2016)

Abstract: To investigate the climate change in the next 30 years over a complex terrain in southwestern Germany, simulations performed with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at convection-permitting resolution are compared to simulations at 7 km resolution with parameterised convection. An earlier study has shown the main benefits of convection-permitting resolution in the hourly statistics and the diurnal cycle of precipitation intensities. Here, we investigate whether the improved simulation of precipitation in the convection-permitting model is affecting future climate projections in summer. Overall, the future scenario (ECHAM5 with A1B forcing) brings weak changes in mean precipitation, but stronger hourly intensities in the morning and less frequent but more intense daily precipitation. The two model simulations produce similar changes in climate, despite differences in their physical characteristics linked to the formation of convective precipitation. A significant increase in the morning precipitation probably due to large-scale forced convection is found when considering only the most extreme events (above 50 mm/day). In this case, even the diurnal cycles of precipitation and convection-related indices are similar between resolutions, leading to the conclusion that the 7 km model sufficiently resolves the most extreme convective events. In this region and time periods, the 7 km resolution is deemed sufficient for most assessments of near future precipitation change. However, conclusions could be dependent on the characteristics of the region of investigation.

Evaluating Arctic warming mechanisms in CMIP5 models (Franzke et al. 2016)

Abstract: Arctic warming is one of the most striking signals of global warming. The Arctic is one of the fastest warming regions on Earth and constitutes, thus, a good test bed to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the physics and dynamics involved in Arctic warming. Different physical and dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to explain Arctic amplification. These mechanisms include the surface albedo feedback and poleward sensible and latent heat transport processes. During the winter season when Arctic amplification is most pronounced, the first mechanism relies on an enhancement in upward surface heat flux, while the second mechanism does not. In these mechanisms, it has been proposed that downward infrared radiation (IR) plays a role to a varying degree. Here, we show that the current generation of CMIP5 climate models all reproduce Arctic warming and there are high pattern correlations—typically greater than 0.9—between the surface air temperature (SAT) trend and the downward IR trend. However, we find that there are two groups of CMIP5 models: one with small pattern correlations between the Arctic SAT trend and the surface vertical heat flux trend (Group 1), and the other with large correlations (Group 2) between the same two variables. The Group 1 models exhibit higher pattern correlations between Arctic SAT and 500 hPa geopotential height trends, than do the Group 2 models. These findings suggest that Arctic warming in Group 1 models is more closely related to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation, whereas in Group 2, the albedo feedback effect plays a more important role. Interestingly, while Group 1 models have a warm or weak bias in their Arctic SAT, Group 2 models show large cold biases. This stark difference in model bias leads us to hypothesize that for a given model, the dominant Arctic warming mechanism and trend may be dependent on the bias of the model mean state.

The Impact of SST Biases on Projections of Anthropogenic Climate Change: A Greater Role for Atmosphere-only Models? (He & Soden, 2016)

Abstract: There is large uncertainty in the model simulation of regional climate change from anthropogenic forcing. Recent studies have tried to link such uncertainty to intermodel differences in the pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) change. On the other hand, coupled climate models also contain systematic biases in their climatology, largely due to drift in SSTs. To the extent that the projected changes depend on the mean state, biases in the present-day climatology also contribute to the intermodel spread in climate change projections. By comparing atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations using the climatological SSTs from different coupled models, we show that biases in the climatological SST generally have a larger impact on regional projections over land than do intermodel differences in the pattern of SST change. These results advocate for a greater application of AGCM simulations with observed SSTs or flux-adjusted coupled models to improve regional projections of anthropogenic climate change.

The art and science of climate model tuning (Hourdin et al. 2016)

Abstract: We survey the rationale and diversity of approaches for tuning, a fundamental aspect of climate modeling which should be more systematically documented and taken into account in multi-model analysis.

The process of parameter estimation targeting a chosen set of observations is an essential aspect of numerical modeling. This process is usually named tuning in the climate modeling community. In climate models, the variety and complexity of physical processes involved, and their interplay through a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, must be summarized in a series of approximate sub-models. Most sub-models depend on uncertain parameters. Tuning consists of adjusting the values of these parameters to bring the solution as a whole into line with aspects of the observed climate. Tuning is an essential aspect of climate modeling with its own scientific issues, which is probably not advertised enough outside the community of model developers. Optimization of climate models raises important questions about whether tuning methods a priori constrain the model results in unintended ways that would affect our confidence in climate projections. Here we present the definition and rationale behind model tuning, review specific methodological aspects, and survey the diversity of tuning approaches used in current climate models. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities in applying so-called ‘objective‘ methods in climate model tuning. We discuss how tuning methodologies may affect fundamental results of climate models, such as climate sensitivity. The article concludes with a series of recommendations to make the process of climate model tuning more transparent.

Other papers

High-resolution ensemble projections of near-term regional climate over the continental United States (Ashfaq et al. 2016)

Twentieth century temperature trends in CMIP3, CMIP5, and CESM-LE climate simulations – spatial-temporal uncertainties, differences and their potential sources (Kumar et al. 2016)

Assessing the robustness and uncertainties of projected changes in temperature and precipitation in AR4 Global Climate Models over the Arabian Peninsula (Almazroui et al. 2016)

The influence of model resolution on temperature variability (Klavans et al. 2016)

Evaluation of the skill of North-American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) Global Climate Models in predicting average and extreme precipitation and temperature over the continental USA (Slater et al. 2016)

Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections (Alexander et al. 2016)

Effects of southeastern Pacific sea surface temperature on the double-ITCZ bias in NCAR CESM1 (Song & Zhang, 2016)

Stochastic Parameterization: Towards a new view of Weather and Climate Models (Berner et al. 2016)

Do convection-permitting regional climate models improve projections of future precipitation change? (Kendon et al. 2016)

MiKlip – a National Research Project on Decadal Climate Prediction (Marotzke et al. 2016)

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New research – composition of atmosphere (August 15, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 15, 2016

Some of the latest papers on composition of atmosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Role of OH variability in the stalling of the global atmospheric CH4 growth rate from 1999 to 2006 (McNorton et al. 2016)

Abstract: The growth in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations over the past 2 decades has shown large variability on a timescale of several years. Prior to 1999 the globally averaged CH4 concentration was increasing at a rate of 6.0 ppb yr−1, but during a stagnation period from 1999 to 2006 this growth rate slowed to 0.6 ppb yr−1. From 2007 to 2009 the growth rate again increased to 4.9 ppb yr−1. These changes in growth rate are usually ascribed to variations in CH4 emissions. We have used a 3-D global chemical transport model, driven by meteorological reanalyses and variations in global mean hydroxyl (OH) concentrations derived from CH3CCl3 observations from two independent networks, to investigate these CH4 growth variations. The model shows that between 1999 and 2006 changes in the CH4 atmospheric loss contributed significantly to the suppression in global CH4 concentrations relative to the pre-1999 trend. The largest factor in this is relatively small variations in global mean OH on a timescale of a few years, with minor contributions of atmospheric transport of CH4 to its sink region and of atmospheric temperature. Although changes in emissions may be important during the stagnation period, these results imply a smaller variation is required to explain the observed CH4 trends. The contribution of OH variations to the renewed CH4 growth after 2007 cannot be determined with data currently available.

Diverse policy implications for future ozone and surface UV in a changing climate (Butler et al. 2016)

Abstract: Due to the success of the Montreal Protocol in limiting emissions of ozone-depleting substances, concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane will control the evolution of total column and stratospheric ozone by the latter half of the 21st century. As the world proceeds down the path of reducing climate forcing set forth by the 2015 Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21), a broad range of ozone changes are possible depending on future policies enacted. While decreases in tropical stratospheric ozone will likely persist regardless of the future emissions scenario, extratropical ozone could either remain weakly depleted or even increase well above historical levels, with diverse implication for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The ozone layer’s dependence on future emissions of these gases creates a complex policy decision space for protecting humans and ecosystems, which includes unexpected options such as accepting nitrous oxide emissions in order to maintain historical column ozone and surface UV levels.

Changes in surface aerosol extinction trends over China during 1980–2013 inferred from quality-controlled visibility data (Li et al. 2016)

Abstract: Pollution in China has been attracting extensive attention both globally and regionally, especially due to the perceptually worsening “smog” condition in recent years. We use routine visibility measurements from 1980 to 2013 at 272 WMO stations in China to assess the temporal changes in the magnitude and the sign of pollution trends. A strict and comprehensive quality control procedure is enforced by considering several issues not typically addressed in previous studies. Two methods are used to independently estimate the trend and its significance level. Results show that in general, a strong increase in Aerosol Extinction Coefficient (AEC) over the majority of China is observed in the 1980s, followed by a moderate decrease in the 1990s, another increase in the 2000s, and a shift to decrease since around 2006 for some regions. Seasonally, winter and fall trends appear to be the strongest, while summer has the lowest trend.

The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry–climate model simulations (Brinkop et al. 2016)

Abstract: This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 (the “millennium water vapour drop”) and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model). The model simulations differ with respect to the prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and whether nudging is applied or not. The CCM EMAC is able to most closely reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour drop in agreement with those derived from satellite observations if the model is nudged. Model results confirm that this extraordinary water vapour decline is particularly obvious in the tropical lower stratosphere and is related to a large decrease in cold point temperature. The drop signal propagates under dilution to the higher stratosphere and to the poles via the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC). We found that the driving forces for this significant decline in water vapour mixing ratios are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to a coincidence with a preceding strong El Niño–Southern Oscillation event (1997/1998) followed by a strong La Niña event (1999/2000) and supported by the change of the westerly to the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in 2000. Correct (observed) SSTs are important for triggering the strong decline in water vapour. There are indications that, at least partly, SSTs contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006. For this period, the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere (overall atmospheric large-scale wind and temperature distribution) is important as well, as it causes the observed persistent low cold point temperatures. These are induced by a period of increased upwelling, which, however, has no corresponding pronounced signature in SSTs anomalies in the tropics. Our free-running simulations do not capture the drop as observed, because a) the cold point temperature has a low bias and thus the water vapour variability is reduced and b) because they do not simulate the appropriate dynamical state. Large negative water vapour declines are also found in other years and seem to be a feature which can be found after strong combined El Niño/La Niña events if the QBO west phase during La Niña changes to the east phase.

Evaluation of 4 years of continuous δ13C(CO2) data using a moving Keeling plot method (Vardag, Hammer & Levin, 2016)

Abstract: Different carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters can be distinguished by their carbon isotope ratios. Therefore measurements of atmospheric δ13C(CO2) and CO2 concentration contain information on the CO2 source mix in the catchment area of an atmospheric measurement site. This information may be illustratively presented as the mean isotopic source signature. Recently an increasing number of continuous measurements of δ13C(CO2) and CO2 have become available, opening the door to the quantification of CO2 shares from different sources at high temporal resolution. Here, we present a method to compute the CO2 source signature (δS) continuously and evaluate our result using model data from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. Only when we restrict the analysis to situations which fulfill the basic assumptions of the Keeling plot method does our approach provide correct results with minimal biases in δS. On average, this bias is 0.2 ‰ with an interquartile range of about 1.2 ‰ for hourly model data. As a consequence of applying the required strict filter criteria, 85 % of the data points – mainly daytime values – need to be discarded. Applying the method to a 4-year dataset of CO2 and δ13C(CO2) measured in Heidelberg, Germany, yields a distinct seasonal cycle of δS. Disentangling this seasonal source signature into shares of source components is, however, only possible if the isotopic end members of these sources – i.e., the biosphere, δbio, and the fuel mix, δF – are known. From the mean source signature record in 2012, δbio could be reliably estimated only for summer to (−25.0 ± 1.0) ‰ and δF only for winter to (−32.5 ± 2.5) ‰. As the isotopic end members δbio and δF were shown to change over the season, no year-round estimation of the fossil fuel or biosphere share is possible from the measured mean source signature record without additional information from emission inventories or other tracer measurements.

Other papers

Intercomparison of in situ NDIR and column FTIR measurements of CO2 at Jungfraujoch (Schibig et al. 2016)

Evaluation of 4 years of continuous δ13C(CO2) data using a moving Keeling plot method (Vardag, Hammer & Levin, 2016)

Intra-seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations over India during summer monsoons (Kumar et al. 2016)

Impact of ENSO on variability of AIRS retrieved CO2 over India (Kumar et al. 2016)

Large XCH4 anomaly in summer 2013 over northeast Asia observed by GOSAT (Ishizawa et al. 2016)

Can we detect regional methane anomalies? A comparison between three observing systems (Cressot et al. 2016)

Non-homogeneous vertical distribution of methane over Indian region using surface, aircraft and satellite based data (Kavitha & Nair, 2016)

A probabilistic study of the return of stratospheric ozone to 1960 levels (Södergren et al. 2016)

The representation of solar cycle signals in stratospheric ozone – Part 1: A comparison of recently updated satellite observations (Maycock et al. 2016)

Summer ozone concentrations in the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake (Horel et al. 2016)

Impact of emissions and +2 °C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe (Watson et al. 2016)

Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosol Trends from Satellite and Surface Observations and Model Simulations over the North Atlantic Ocean from 2002 to 2012 (Jongeward et al. 2016)

Aerosol Lidar Observations of Atmospheric Mixing in Los Angeles: Climatology and Implications for Greenhouse Gas Observations (Ware et al. 2016)

Future aerosol emissions: a multi-model comparison (Smith et al. 2016)

Multi-Year Study of the Dependence of Sea Salt Aerosol on Wind Speed and Sea Ice Conditions in the Coastal Arctic (May et al. 2016)

Effects of climate changes on dust aerosol over East Asia from RegCM3 (Zhang et al. 2016)

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Papers of Climate Research

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 10, 2016

Below are listed all the papers in journal Climate Research between years 1990 and 2012 (1129 papers). Most of the papers have also been added to the Climate papers resource by subject.

Impacts of greenhouse warming on water temperature and water quality in the southern United States (Cooter & Cooter, 1990)
Spatial patterns of multiple drought types in the contiguous United States: a seasonal comparison (Soulé, 1990)
Detecting the onset of spring: a possible application of phenological models (Schwartz, 1990)
Relating climatological forcing to coastal water levels in Louisiana estuaries and the potential importance of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events (Childers et al. 1990)
Evaluation for the continent of Australia of the simulation of the surface climate using the Biosphere/Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) coupled into a global climate model (Henderson-Sellers, 1990)
Consequences of climatic change for the human environment (Scott et al. 1990)
Timing of deglaciation in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica (Horn, 1990)
Ozone depletion due to increasing anthropogenic trace gas emissions: role of stratospheric chemistry and implications for future climate (Lal & Holt, 1990)
Climatic variation and tree-ring structure in conifers: empirical and mechanistic models of tree-ring width, number of cells, cell size, cell-wall thickness and wood density (Fritts et al. 1990)
Estimating daily global radiation from air temperature and rainfall measurements (Bindi & Miglietta, 1990)
Estimating chilling duration from daily temperature extremes and elevation in Isreal (Aron & Gat, 1990)
Response of Florida citrus growers to the freezes of the 1980s (Miller, 1990)
Simulation of wheat ontogenesis. I. Appearance of main stem leaves in the field (Miglietta, 1990)
Simulation of wheat ontogenesis. II. Prediction dates of ear emergence and main stem final leaf number (Miglietta, 1990)
Transient climate response to solar irradiance: reconstruction for the last 120 years (Gérard & Hauglustaine, 1990)
Selecting ‘interesting’ scenarios with which to analyze policy response to potential climate change (Yohe, 1990)
Rising estimates of terrestrial and global precipitation (Willmott & Legates, 1990)
Space and time variability analyses of the Indian monsoon rainfall as inferred from satellite-derived OLR data (Haque & Lal, 1990)
Influence of glaze ice storms on growth rates of loblolly pine Pinus taeda and shortleaf pine Pinus echinata in the Southern Appalachian Piedmont (Travis & Meentemeyer, 1990)
Influence of the trade-wind inversion on the climate of a leeward mountain slope in Hawaii (Giambelluca & Nullet, 1990)
Soil moisture and the distribution of giant Andean rosettes on talus slopes of a desert paramo (Pérez, 1990)
Simulation of wheat ontogenesis. III. Effect of variety, nitrogen fertilization and water stress on leaf appearance and final leaf number in the field (Miglietta, 1990)
Global changes in a humidity index between 1931-60 and 1961-90 (Hulme et al. 1992)
Impact of climate changes on crop yields of winter rye in Halle (southeastern Germany), 1901 to 1980 (Chmielewski, 1992)
Role of statistics in the validation of general circulation models (Katz, 1992)
Different methods for separating diffuse and direct components of solar radiation and their application in crop growth models (Bindi et al. 1992)
Validation of a rediation model for estimation of longwave net radiation at the surface (Gonima, 1992)
Correlation of 700 mb height data with seasonal temperature trends in the Great Basin (western USA): 1947-1987 (Knapp, 1992)
Climatic factors that limit daily evapo-transpiration in sorghum (Hubbard, 1992)
Spatial patterns of frequency and duration for persistent near-normal climatic events in the contiguous United States (Soulé, 1992)
Annual development of climatic summer in northern North America: accurate prediction of summer heat availability (Scott, 1992)
Climate research for ecological monitoring and assessment: a New England example (Cooter et al. 1992)
Thermal and moisture limits of grain maize in Europe: model testing and sensitivity to climate change (Kenny & Harrison, 1992)
Sensitivity of wheat growth to increased air temperature for different scenarios of ambient CO2 concentration and rainfall in Victoria, Australia – a simulation study (Wang et al. 1992)
Sensitivity study of the influence of changes in canopy characteristics on evaporation loss and soil moisture using a sparse vegetation model (Lockwood, 1992)
Towards a statistical paradigm for climate change (Katz, 1992)
Incident solar radiation simulated by general circulation models for the southwestern United States (Brazel et al. 1992)
A daily soil temperature model based on air temperature and precipitation for continental applications (Zheng et al. 1992)
A synoptic climatology of stream flow and acidity (Yarnal & Draves, 1992)
Implications of climate change for the water balance of the Columbia River Basin, USA (Marks et al. 1992)
Climatic changes and trends over a major river basin in India (Rao, 1992)
Potential impact of winter temperature increases on South Carolina peach production (Carbone & Schwartz, 1992)
The lynx cycle: a climatic perspective (Scott & Craine, 1992)
Carbon dioxide sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems (Wisniewski et al. 1993)
Constructing a seasonal carbon balance for a forest ecosystem (Cropper & Gholz, 1993)
Carbon balance of the continuous permafrost zone of Russia (Kolchugina & Vinson, 1993)
Carbon sequestration in tropical Asia: an assessment of technically suitable forest lands using geographic information systems analysis (Iverson et al. 1993)
Carbon storage in agroforestry: an estimate for sub-Saharan Africa (Unruh et al. 1993)
Agroforestry systems: integrated land use to store and conserve carbon (Schroeder, 1993)
Conceptual approaches for incorporating climatic change into the development of forest management options for sequestering carbon (King, 1993)
Modeling the potential change in yield and distribution of the earth’s crops under a warmed climate (Leemans & Solomon, 1993)
Climatic classification and future global redistribution of agricultural land (Cramer & Solomon, 1993)
Forest management and the economics of carbon storage: the nonfinancial component (Winjum & Lewis, 1993)
Economic impacts of individual climate change mitigation options in the U.S. forest sector (Winnett et al. 1993)
Biotic carbon offset programs: sponsors of or impediment to economic development? (Trexler & Meganck, 1993)
Global climate change education: technology transfer to schools (Henderson & Holman, 1993)
Comparison of Siberian paleovegetation to current and future vegetation under climate change (Monserud et al. 1993)
Effect of global change on maize production in the Argentinean Pampas (Paruelo & Sala, 1993)
Analyses of growing degree-days for agriculture in Atlantic Canada (Gordon & Bootsma, 1993)
The Köppen climate classification as a diagnostic tool for general circulation models (Lohmann et al. 1993)
Interannual variability of Central European mean temperature in January-February and its relation to large-scale circulation (Werner & von Storch, 1993)
Freezing rain and sleet climatology of the southeastern USA (Gay & Davis, 1993)
Tropical cyclone formation in the North Atlantic Basin, 1960-1989 (Vega & Binkley, 1993)
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment can increase the 18O content of leaf water and cellulose: paleoclimatic and ecophysiological implications (Cooper & Norby, 1994)
Abrupt changes in regional temperature in the conterminous United States, 1895-1989 (Yonetani & McCabe, 1994)
A reexamination of extreme 24-hour rainfall in Louisiana, USA (Faiers et al. 1994)
Urban-biased trends in Buenos Aires’ mean temperature (Barros & Camilloni, 1994)
Inaccuracies in weather data and their effects on crop growth simulation results. I. Potential production (Nonhebel, 1994)
Inaccuracies in weather data and their effects on crop growth simulation results. II. Water-limited production (Nonhebel, 1994)
Seasonal associations between mid-tropospheric height patterns and precipitation in the western Great Basin, USA (Knapp, 1994)
Reconstruction of the winter Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern during 1895-1947 and its application in climatological studies (Yin, 1994)
Centennial climate changes and their global associations in the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) Delta, China and subtropical Asia (Chang & King, 1994)
Influence of soil moisture and surface roughness heterogeneity on modeled climate (Klink & Willmott, 1994)
Influence of spatial sampling and interpolation on estimates of air temperature change (Robeson, 1994)
Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs (Tahvonen et al. 1994)
The Frankfurt Biosphere Model: a global process-oriented model of seasonal and long-term CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I. Model description and illustrative results for cold deciduous and boreal forests (Lüdeke et al. 1994)
Linking GCM-simulated climatic changes to ecosystem models: case studies of statistical downscaling in the Alps (Gyalistras et al. 1994)
A weather generator based on the European ‘Grosswetterlagen’ (Schubert, 1994)
On coupling global biome models with climate models (Claussen, 1994)
Regional-scale forest ecosystem modeling: database development, model predictions and validation using a Geographic Information System (McNulty et al. 1994)
Some remarks on climatic maps of precipitation (Kay & Kutiel, 1994)
Climate change in the Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T., Canada (Liang & Kershaw, 1995)
Snowpack ablation and associated processes in the Subarctic forest near Fort Norman, N.W.T., Canada (Kershaw, 1995)
Impacts of increased winter snow cover on upland tundra vegetation: a case example (Scott & Rouse, 1995)
The role of individual terrain units in the water balance of wetland tundra (Boudreau & Rouse, 1995)
Strategies for revegetation of disturbed gravel areas in climate stressed subarctic environments with special reference to Churchill, Manitoba, Canada: a literature review (Firlotte & Staniforth, 1995)
Adaptations of frogs to survive freezing (Layne & Lee, 1995)
Cryobiology of the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis: overwintering energetics and heat shock proteins (Lee et al. 1995)
Climate, copepods and cod: some thoughts on the long-range prospects for a sustainable northern cod fishery (Conover et al. 1995)
Comparison of traditional and manufactured cold weather ensembles (Oakes et al. 1995)
Climate and cultural barriers to northern economic development: a case study from Broughton Island, N.W.T., Canada (Oakes, 1995)
The social construct of climate and climate change (Stehr & von Storch, 1995)
Reconstruction of past terrestrial carbon storage in the Northern Hemisphere from the Osnabrück Biosphere Model and palaeodata (Peng et al. 1995)
Modelling comparison to evaluate the importance of phenology for the effects of climate change on growth of temperate-zone deciduous trees (Kramer, 1995)
A Hawaiian mountain climate cross-section (Nullet et al. 1995)
Relations between winter atmospheric circulation and annual streamflow in the western United States (McCabe, 1995)
Short- to long-term trends in hydrologic drought conditions in the contiguous United States (Soulé & Yin, 1995)
Maximum precipitation rates in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of the southeastern United States (Konrad, 1995)
Temporal variations of rainfall in Israel (Goldreich, 1995)
Climate change scenarios for the Nordic countries (Jóhannesson et al. 1995)
Potential effects of global climate warming on brook trout growth and prey consumption in central Appalachian streams, USA (Ries & Perry, 1995)
Predicting the effects of climate change on water yield and forest production in the northeastern United States (Aber et al. 1995)
Interannual variability characteristics of the eastern Minnesota (USA) temperature record: implications for climate change studies (Skaggs et al. 1995)
Translating monthly temperature from regional to local scale in the southeastern United States (Carbone & Bramante, 1995)
Synoptic scale disturbances of the Indian summer monsoon as simulated in a high resolution climate model (Lal et al. 1995)
Rainfall area identification using satellite data (González & Velasco, 1995)
A prognostic phenology scheme for global terrestrial carbon cycle models (Kaduk & Heimann, 1996)
Changing probabilities of daily temperature extremes in the UK related to future global warming and changes in climate variability (Barrow & Hulme, 1996)
Statistical characteristics of U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperature distributions (Guttman, 1996)
Influence of tree cover on summertime surface energy balance fluxes, San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles (Grimmond et al. 1996)
Environmental indices for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (Minnesota, USA) urban heat island – 1989 (Todhunter, 1996)
Influence of climate on design of systems for land application of wastewater (Wax & Pote, 1996)
Methane budget determined at the ground and water surface level in various ecosystems in Shiga Prefecture, central Japan (Kagotani et al. 1996)
Vulnerability assessment of water resources in Egypt to climatic change in the Nile Basin (Strzepek et al. 1996)
Methods for assessing the vulnerability of African fisheries resources to climate change (Hlohowskyj et al. 1996)
Global atmospheric change and human health: an integrated modelling approach (Martens, 1996)
Methods for assessing public health vulnerability to global climate change (Patz & Balbus, 1996)
Vulnerability of forest resources to global climate change: case study of Cameroon and Ghana (Dixon et al. 1996)
Vulnerability of Zimbabwe forests to global climate change (Matarira & Mwamuka, 1996)
Historic and future climatic change in Zimbabwe (Unganai, 1996)
Potential effects of climate change on corn production in Zimbabwe (Makadho, 1996)
Alternative food crops to adapt to potential climatic change in southern Africa (Kamukondiwa, 1996)
Potential impacts of future climate change on nyala Tragelaphus angasi in Lengwe National Park, Malawi (Mkanda, 1996)
Vulnerability of the coastal zone of The Gambia to sea level rise and development of response strategies and adaptation options (Jallow et al. 1996)
Potential impacts of climate change on ecosystems: a review of implications for policymakers and conservation biologists (Markham, 1996)
Climate change adaptation policy options (Smith & Lenhart, 1996)
Factors affecting the summer carbon dioxide budget of subarctic wetland tundra (Burton et al. 1996)
Spatial modeling and interpolation of monthly temperature using kriging (Holdaway, 1996)
An air mass-based approach to regional GCM validation (Schwartz, 1996)
Generating regional precipitation from observed and GCM synoptic-scale pressure fields, southern Alberta, Canada (Saunders & Byrne, 1996)
Space-time variation and regionalization of seasonal and monthly summer monsoon rainfall of the sub-Himalayan region and Gangetic plains of India (Singh & Singh, 1996)
Improving the validation of model-simulated crop yield response to climate change: an application to the EPIC model (Easterling et al. 1996)
Severe rainstorms in the Vidarbha subdivision of Maharashtra State, India (Kulkarni & Nandargi, 1996)
Effects of network design on climatic maps of precipitation (Kutiel & Kay, 1996)
A space-time stochastic climatological approach to daily global solar radiation (Matyasovszky & Bogardi, 1996)
Intra-urban nocturnal temperature differences: a multivariate approach (Eliasson, 1996)
Modelling comparison to evaluate the importance of phenology and spring frost damage for the effects of climate change on growth of mixed temperate-zone deciduous forests (Kramer et al. 1996)
Quantitative analysis of summer air masses in the eastern United States and an application to human mortality (Greene & Kalkstein, 1996)
Comparison of the UKMO and GFDL GCM climate projections in NPP simulations for southern loblolly pine stands (Sampson et al. 1996)
African wave disturbances and precipitation at Niamey during July-August 1987 and 1988 (Druyan et al. 1996)
Climate downscaling: techniques and application (Hewitson & Crane, 1996)
Statistical hindcast of wind climatology in the North Atlantic and northwestern European region (Kaas & Schmith, 1996)
Expanded downscaling for generating local weather scenarios (Bürger, 1996)
Estimates of climate change in Southern Europe derived from dynamical climate model output (Cubasch et al. 1996)
Verification of statistical-dynamical downscaling in the Alpine region (Fuentes & Heimann, 1996)
Precipitation and air flow indices over the British Isles (Conway et al. 1996)
Mixtures of stochastic processes: application to statistical downscaling (Katz & Parlange, 1996)
Effect of using different methods in the construction of climate change scenarios: examples from Europe (Barrow et al. 1996)
Modelling the impact of future climate scenarios on yield and yield variability of grapevine (Bindi et al. 1996)
Effects of climate change on Europe-wide winter wheat and sunflower productivity (Harrison & Butterfield, 1996)
Estimating the development and regional thermal suitability of spring wheat in Finland under climatic warming (Saarikko & Carter, 1996)
Comparison of wheat simulation models under climate change. I. Model calibration and sensitivity analyses (Wolf et al. 1996)
Comparison of wheat simulation models under climate change. II. Application of climate change scenarios (Semenov et al. 1996)
Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (Dodson & Marks, 1997)
Growing-season microclimate variability within an old-growth Douglas-fir forest (Chen & Franklin, 1997)
Sensitivity of forests in the European Alps to future climatic change (Bugmann, 1997)
Impact of a wind climate change on the surge in the southern North Sea (Bijl, 1997)
The Frankfurt Biosphere Model: a global process-oriented model of seasonal and long-term CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. II. Global results for potential vegetation in an assumed equilibrium state (Kohlmaier et al. 1997)
Global Warming Potentials: ambiguity or precision as an aid to policy? (Shackley & Wynne, 1997)
Determination of climatological seasons for the East Coast of the U.S. using an air mass-based classification (Cheng & Kalkstein, 1997)
Tree-ring reconstructions of circulation indices (Woodhouse, 1997)
Climate change and the detection of trends in annual runoff (McCabe & Wolock, 1997)
Fuzzy logic based global assessment of the marginality of agricultural land use (Cassel-Gintz et al. 1997)
Extreme temperature days in the south-central United States (Henderson & Muller, 1997)
Trust and climate (Stehr, 1997)
Proposal for the development of climate scenarios (Werner & Gerstengarbe, 1997)
On the disaggregation of climatological means and anomalies (Bürger, 1997)
Downscaling climate model outputs into local and regional weather elements by classification and regression (Enke & Spekat, 1997)
Temperature and its variability in oak forests in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks (Xu & Chen, 1997)
Impacts of climate change on net productivity of coastal waters: implications for carbon budget and hypoxia (Justic et al. 1997)
Vulnerability of the agricultural sector of Latin America to climate change (Baethgen, 1997)
Preliminary results from the implementation of the SPUR2 model in Uruguay (Chiara & Cruz, 1997)
Vulnerability of rainfed maize crops in Mexico to climate change (Conde et al. 1997)
Climate change and its impact on the properties of agricultural soils in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas (Diaz et al. 1997)
Vulnerability of the agricultural systems of Argentina to climate change (Magrin et al. 1997)
Climate change effects on grasslands in Uruguay (Panario & Bidegain, 1997)
Soil vulnerability in Uruguay: potential effects of an increase in erosive rainfall on soil loss (Victora et al. 1997)
Climate change and the management of coastal resources (Bijlsma, 1997)
Assessment of the vulnerability of Venezuela to sea-level rise (Olivo, 1997)
Vulnerability of oceanic dune systems under wind pattern change scenarios in Uruguay (Panario & Piñeiro, 1997)
Assessment of impacts of a potential sea-level rise on the coast of Montevideo, Uruguay (Saizar, 1997)
Sensitivity of storm waves in Montevideo (Uruguay) to a hypothetical climate change (Lorenzo & Teixeira, 1997)
Assessment of the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change in Mexico (Villers-Ruiz & Trejo-Vázquez, 1997)
The people’s attitudes towards global environmental phenomena: a case study (González & da Silveira, 1997)
Performance of general circulation models in southeastern South America (Hofstadter & Bidegain, 1997)
Assessment of current and future regional climate scenarios for Mexico (Magaña et al. 1997)
Analysis of climate scenarios for Bolivia (Rada et al. 1997)
Impacts of climate change on the oases of the Argentinean cordillera (Carril et al. 1997)
Assessment of climate change impacts on the water resources of Panama: the case of the La Villa, Chiriquí and Chagres river basins (Espinosa et al. 1997)
Vulnerability of basins and watersheds in Mexico to global climate change (Mendoza et al. 1997)
Climate change impacts on the hydrologic resources of South America: an annual, continental scale assessment (Yates, 1997)
Uncertainty and sensitivity in global carbon cycle modelling (Parkinson & Young, 1997)
Analysis of winter and summer warming rates in gridded temperature time series (Balling et al. 1997)
Estimating the terrestrial carbon pools of the former Soviet Union, conterminous U.S., and Brazil (Turner et al. 1997)
Climatology of the daily temperature range annual cycle in the United States (Leathers et al. 1997)
Climatological study of the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. I. Rainfall analysis (Abdullah & Al-Mazroui, 1997)
Weather and traffic accidents in Montreal, Canada (Andreescu & Frost, 1997)
Portraying climate scenario uncertainties in relation to tolerable regional climate change (Hulme & Brown, 1998)
Comparison of temporal and unresolved spatial variability in multiyear time-averages of air temperature (Robeson & Janis, 1998)
Analysis of trends in the variability of daily and monthly historical temperature measurements (Michaels et al. 1998)
Mapping monthly precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation for Ireland with polynomial regression and a digital elevation model (Goodale et al. 1998)
Predicting the relative sensitivity of forest production in Ireland to site quality and climate change (Goodale et al. 1998)
CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic’s view of potential climate change (Idso, 1998)
Linear versus nonlinear techniques in downscaling (Weichert & Bürger, 1998)
Comparison of the WGEN and LARS-WG stochastic weather generators for diverse climates (Semenov et al. 1998)
A model of the relationship between consultation behaviour for asthma in a general practice and the weather (Kljakovic & Salmond, 1998)
The Gulf of Mexico mid-tropospheric response to El Niño and La Niña forcing (Vega et al. 1998)
Estimated impacts of soil degradation on the African water balance and climate (Feddema, 1998)
Long-term trends in precipitation and temperature in the Norwegian Arctic: can they be explained by changes in atmospheric circulation patterns? (Hanssen-Bauer & Førland, 1998)
The IPCC future projections: are they plausible? (Gray, 1998)
Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation using daily airflow and seasonal teleconnection indices (Wilby, 1998)
Detecting relationships between the interannual variability in ecological time series and climate using a multivariate statistical approach‹a case study on Helgoland Roads zooplankton (Heyen et al. 1998)
Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751-1995 (Balling et al. 1998)
Principal components-based regionalization of precipitation regimes across the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, with an application to monsoon precipitation variability (Comrie & Glenn, 1998)
An empirical approach for delineating fine scaled spatial patterns of freezing rain in the Appalachian region of the USA (Konrad, 1998)
Regional issues raised by sea-level rise and their policy implications (Nicholls & Mimura, 1998)
Effects of global climate change on world agriculture: an interpretive review (Adams et al. 1998)
Climate change and human health in the Asia Pacific region: who will be most vulnerable? (Woodward et al. 1998)
The potential effects of climate change on U.S. forests: a review (Winnett, 1998)
Desertification and climate change–the Australian perspective (Pickup, 1998)
Integrated regional assessment and climate change impacts in river basins (Yarnal, 1998)
Public perceptions of global warming: United States and internation perspectives (Bord et al. 1998)
Risks, opportunities and adaptation to climate change (Scheraga & Grambsch, 1998)
Estimation of the beginning and end of recurrent events within a climate regime (Gerstengarbe & Werner, 1998)
Effects of spatial aggregation on predictions of forest climate change response (Nungesser et al. 1998)
Multisite downscaling of daily precipitation with a stochastic weather generator (Wilks, 1998)
Spatial interpolation of the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator in Great Britain (Semenov & Brooks, 1998)
Explaining spatial variability in mean annual runoff in the conterminous United States (Wolock & McCabe, 1998)
Changing storminess? An analysis of long-term sea level data sets (Bijl et al. 1998)
Empirical-statistical reconstruction of surface marine winds along the western coast of Canada (Faucher et al. 1998)
Canadian Prairie growing season precipitation variability and associated atmospheric circulation (Bonsal et al. 1998)
Modelling wheat yield responses to soil and climate variability at the regional scale (Wassenaar et al. 1998)
Potential climate change impacts on water resources in the Auckland Region (New Zealand) (Fowler, 1998)
Potential impact of climate change effects on preferences for tourism destinations. A psychological pilot study (Braun et al. 1998)
Validation of downscaling models for changed climate conditions: case study of southwestern Australia (Charles et al. 1999)
Sensitivity of simulated surface runoff to mesoscale meteorological model resolution in a linked-model experiment (Lakhtakia et al. 1999)
Surface conductance and energy exchange in an intensively managed peat pasture (Dirks & Hensen, 1999)
Regional climatic warming and associated twentieth century land-cover changes in north-western North America (Skinner & Majorowicz, 1999)
Dependence of precipitation on temperature at Florence and Livorno (Italy) (Buishand & Brandsma, 1999)
Air and soil frost indices in relation to plant mortality in elevated clear-felled terrain in Central Sweden (Lindkvist & Chen, 1999)
Climate change impacts and responses in the Philippines: water resources (Jose & Cruz, 1999)
An approach for assessing the vulnerability of the water resources of Yemen to climate change (Alderwish & Al-Eryani, 1999)
Impact of climate change on the water resources of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia (Hailemariam, 1999)
Climate change impacts and responses in the Philippines coastal sector (Perez et al. 1999)
Climate change impacts and adaptation assessment in Bangladesh (Ali, 1999)
Adaptation to the impacts of sea level rise in Egypt (El Raey et al. 1999)
Coastal zone of The Gambia and the Abidjan region in Côte d’Ivoire: sea level rise vulnerability, response strategies, and adaptation options (Jallow et al. 1999)
Vulnerability of island countries in the South Pacific to sea level rise and climate change (Mimura, 1999)
Simulated rice yields as affected by interannual climate variability and possible climate change in Java (Amien et al. 1999)
Climate change impact on agricultural crops and adaptation options in Romania (Cuculeanu et al. 1999)
Vulnerability and adaptation of agronomic systems in Bulgaria (Alexandrov, 1999)
Adaptation principles of agriculture to climate change (Karing et al. 1999)
Vulnerability to climate change in Uruguay: potential impacts on the agricultural and coastal resource sectors and response capabilities (Hareau et al. 1999)
Forest ecosystem climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies for Pakistan (Siddiqui et al. 1999)
Impact of recent and future climate change on Estonian forestry and adaptation tools (Nilson et al. 1999)
Drought as an analogue climate change scenario for prediction of potential impacts on Malawi’s wildlife habitats (Mkanda, 1999)
Climate change scenarios for impact assessment in Cuba (Centella et al. 1999)
Climate and mortality in Australia: retrospective study, 1979-1990, and predicted impacts in five major cities in 2030 (Guest et al. 1999)
Winter ischaemic heart disease deaths in Birmingham, United Kingdom: a synoptic climatological analysis (McGregor, 1999)
Mapping of temperature variables in Israel: a comparison of different interpolation methods (Kurtzman & Kadmon, 1999)
Simulation of daily temperatures for climate change scenarios over Portugal: a neural network model approach (Trigo & Palutikof, 1999)
A weather generator for obtaining daily precipitation scenarios based on circulation patterns (Corte-Real et al. 1999)
Radiation balance of wetland tundra at northern treeline estimated from remotely sensed data (Duguay et al. 1999)
Statistical downscaling in central Europe: evaluation of methods and potential predictors (Huth, 1999)
Application of an analog downscaling technique to the assessment of future landslide activity-a case study in the Italian Alps (Dehn, 1999)
Surface CO2 exchange in an intensively managed peat pasture (Dirks et al. 1999)
Influence of geographical factors and meteorological variables on nocturnal urban-park temperature differences-a case study of summer 1995 in Göteborg, Sweden (Upmanis & Chen, 1999)
Tourists and attitudes to air-conditioning in the tropics (Bromberek, 1999)
Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (Soon et al. 1999)
The economic consequences of ENSO events for agriculture (Adams et al. 1999)
Air flow influences on local climate: observed and simulated mean relationships for the United Kingdom (Osborn et al. 1999)
Trends in mean monthly maximum and minimum surface wind speeds in the coterminous United States, 1961 to 1990 (Klink, 1999)
A synoptic climatology of surface-level ozone in Eastern Wisconsin, USA (Lennartson & Schwartz, 1999)
Industrial greenhouse gas emissions: Does CO2 from combustion of biomass residue for energy really matter? (Lineback et al. 1999)
Inter-annual variability of short rains over northern Tanzania (Kabanda & Jury, 1999)
Observed warming in cold anticyclones (Michaels et al. 2000)
The influence of climate on air and precipitation chemistry over Europe, and downscaling applications to future acidic deposition (Jones & Davies, 2000)
Dependence of salinity and oxygen concentrations in the Baltic Sea on large-scale atmospheric circulation (Zorita & Laine, 2000)
Growing season moisture deficits across the northeastern United States (Leathers et al. 2000)
Effect of drainage on CO2 exchange patterns in an intensively managed peat pasture (Dirks et al. 2000)
Possible role of climate change in the pollen scatter of Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica in Japan (Teranishi et al. 2000)
Trends of storms in NW Europe derived from an updated pressure data set (Alexandersson et al. 2000)
Improvements of stochastic weather data generators for diverse climates (Hayhoe, 2000)
Analysing the risk of climate change using an irrigation demand model (Jones, 2000)
On the sensitivity of a regional Arctic climate model to initial and boundary conditions (Rinke & Dethloff, 2000)
GIS-based construction of baseline climatologies for the Mediterranean using terrain variables (Agnew & Palutikof, 2000)
Connection between the large-scale 500 hPa geopotential height fields and precipitation over Greece during wintertime (Xoplaki et al. 2000)
Reconstructing the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries from historical sources (Garcia et al. 2000)
The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment: motivation and approach (Fisher et al. 2000)
The Mid-Atlantic Region and its climate: past, present, and future (Yarnal, 2000)
Simulating the economic impacts of climate change in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Rose et al. 2000)
Climate change and agriculture in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Abler & Shortle, 2000)
The potential impacts of climate change and variability on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic Region (McKenney-Easterling et al. 2000)
Impact of climate variation and change on Mid-Atlantic Region hydrology and water resources (Neff et al. 2000)
The potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal region (Najjar et al. 2000)
Climate change and ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Region (Rogers & McCarty, 2000)
Climate change and health in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Benson et al. 2000)
Stakeholder involvement in climate assessment: bridging the gap between scientific research and the public (O’Connor et al. 2000)
Preliminary findings from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (Fisher, 2000)
A hidden Markov model for downscaling synoptic atmospheric patterns to precipitation amounts (Bellone et al. 2000)
Analysis of the climatic mechanisms contributing to the summertime transport of lower atmospheric ozone across metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, USA (Ellis et al. 2000)
Variation among solar radiation data sets for the Eastern US and its effects on predictions of forest production and water yield (Aber & Freuder, 2000)
Effects of silvicultural treatments on summer forest microclimate in southeastern Missouri Ozarks (Zheng et al. 2000)
Two models for the climate change related development of sea levels in the North Sea-a comparison (Kauker & Langenberg, 2000)
Impact of climate change on a landslide in South East France, simulated using different GCM scenarios and downscaling methods for local precipitation (Buma & Dehn, 2000)
Visioning event horizons: Where do we go from here? (Bray, 2000)
Use of Baltic Sea modelling to investigate the water cycle and the heat balance in GCM and regional climate models (Omstedt et al. 2000)
Changing cyclones and surface wind speeds over the North Atlantic and Europe in a transient GHG experiment (Knippertz et al. 2000)
The tale of two climates-Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites (Brazel et al. 2000)
Spatial variability of micro-climatic conditions within a mid-latitude deciduous forest (Grimmond et al. 2000)
Causes of variability in monthly Great Lakes water supplies and lake levels (Brinkmann, 2000)
A model analysis of the relationship between climate perturbations and carbon budget anomalies in global terrestrial ecosystems: 1970 to 1997 (Ito & Oikawa, 2000)
Relationships between road slipperiness, traffic accident risk and winter road maintenance activity (Norrman et al. 2000)
Effects of global climate change on the US forest sector: response functions derived from a dynamic resource and market simulator (McCarl et al. 2000)
Space-time variations of climatic seasons and their correlation with the phenological development of nature in Estonia (Jaagus & Ahas, 2000)
Sensitivity of field-scale winter wheat production in Denmark to climate variability and climate change (Olesen et al. 2000)
Synoptic evolution of composite wet spells over northern Tanzania (Kabanda & Jury, 2000)
Interdecadal changes in the precipitation seasonal cycle over Southern South America and their relationship with surface temperature (Rusticucci & Penalba, 2000)
Application of tree-structured regression for regional precipitation prediction using general circulation model output (Li & Sailor, 2000)
Evaluation of the linkage between Schumann Resonance peak frequency values and global and regional temperatures (Balling & Hildebrandt, 2000)
Field assessment of the microclimatology of tropical flank margin caves (Gamble et al. 2000)
Severe summer rainfall in China associated with enhanced global warming (Gong & Wang, 2000)
A protocol to articulate and quantify uncertainties in climate change detection and attribution (Risbey et al. 2000)
The atmospheric response to a reduction in summer Antarctic sea-ice extent (Hudson & Hewitson, 2000)
Climate change impacts on runoff in Sweden-assessments by global climate models, dynamical downscaling and hydrological modelling (Bergström et al. 2000)
Attitudes toward climate change: major emitters in southwestern Kansas (Harrington, 2000)
Reconstruction of potential evaporation for water balance studies (Weisse & Oestreiche, 2000)
An empirical mechanistic framework for heat-related illness (Chan et al. 2000)
The climate of Rome and its action on monument decay (Camuffo & Sturaro, 2000)
Reconstruction of the surface warming history of western interior Canada from borehole temperature profiles and other climate information (Majorowicz & Skinner, 2000)
Interannual winter temperature variability in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (Sáenz et al. 2000)
Developing scenarios of climate change for Southeastern Australia: an example using regional climate model output (Whetton et al. 2000)
Impact of horizontal resolution on the simulation of seasonal climate in the Atlantic/European area for present and future times (May, 2000)
Verification and analysis of a climate simulation of temperature and pressure fields over Norway and Svalbard (Hanssen-Bauer & Førland, 2000)
Extension of crop model outputs over the land surface by the application of statistical and neural network techniques to topographical and satellite data (Bindi & Maselli, 2000)
Climatic effects of land cover change at different carbon dioxide levels (Zhao et al. 2001)
Pasture responses to elevated temperature and doubled CO2 concentration: assessing the spatial pattern across an alpine landscape (Riedo et al. 2001)
Climate variation and crop production in Georgia, USA, during the twentieth century (Alexandrov & Hoogenboom, 2001)
Nature of observed temperature changes across the United States during the 20th century (Knappenberger et al. 2001)
Severity of winter seasons in the northern Baltic Sea between 1529 and 1990: reconstruction and analysis (Jevrejeva, 2001)
Impact of climate change on soil frost under snow cover in a forested landscape (Venäläinen et al. 2001)
Cod and climate variability in the Barents Sea (Dippner & Ottersen, 2001)
Intra-seasonal convective structure and evolution over tropical East Africa (Mpeta & Jury, 2001)
Africa and global climate change: critical issues and suggestions for further research and integrated assessment modeling (Desanker & Justice, 2001)
Vegetation changes over palaeo-time scales in Africa (Olago, 2001)
Climatic and environmental change in Africa during the last two centuries (Nicholson, 2001)
African climate change: 1900-2100 (Hulme et al. 2001)
A GCM study of climate change induced by deforestation in Africa (Semazzi & Song, 2001)
Dynamic responses of African ecosystem carbon cycling to climate change (Cao et al. 2001)
Effects of rainfall variability and communal and semi-commercial grazing on land cover in southern African rangelands (Dube & Pickup, 2001)
Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts (Feddema & Freire, 2001)
Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel (Gonzalez, 2001)
Central African forests, carbon and climate change (Justice et al. 2001)
Assessments of the reliability of NCEP circulation data and relationships with surface climate by direct comparisons with station based data (Reid et al. 2001)
Global warming signature in observed winter precipitation in Northwestern Europe? (Schmith, 2001)
Observed winter Alpine precipitation variability and links with large-scale circulation patterns (Quadrelli et al. 2001)
Heavy precipitation events over a few Alpine sub-regions and the links with large-scale circulation, 1971-1995 (Plaut et al. 2001)
Large-scale circulation classification, weather regimes, and local climate over France, the Alps and Western Europe (Plaut & Simonnet, 2001)
Space-time analysis of geopotential height and SLP, intraseasonal oscillations, weather regimes, and local climates over the North Atlantic and Europe (Simonnet & Plaut, 2001)
Impact of climate change on the coastal zone: discussion and conclusions (Sündermann et al. 2001)
Baltic Sea ocean climate: an analysis of 100 yr of hydrographic data with focus on the freshwater budget (Winsor et al. 2001)
Historical changes of bottom topography and tidal amplitude in the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal­trends for future evolution (Silva & Duck, 2001)
A probabilistic approach to sea level rise up to the year 2100 at Kolobrzeg, Poland (Wróblewski, 2001)
Regionalization of climate change for the North Sea and Baltic Sea (Schrum, 2001)
Decadal changes in the wind forcing over the North Sea (Siegismund & Schrum, 2001)
Large-scale circulation and flushing characteristics of the North Sea under various climate forcings (Blaas et al. 2001)
Uncertainty analysis of a decadal simulation with a regional ocean model for the North Sea and Baltic Sea (Janssen et al. 2001)
Interannual changes of the ocean wave variability in the North Atlantic and in the North Sea (Bauer, 2001)
Characteristics of storm surges in German estuaries (Plüß et al. 2001)
Effects of a specific climate scenario on the hydrography and transport of conservative substances in the Weser estuary, Germany: a case study (Grabemann et al. 2001)
Algal pigments in Baltic sediments as markers of ecosystem and climate changes (Kowalewska, 2001)
Climate change and the ecology of the Weser estuary region: assessing the impact of an abrupt change in climate (Osterkamp et al. 2001)
Climate impacts on pioneer saltmarsh plants (Gray & Mogg, 2001)
Indications of climate change in coastal areas: what may fish otoliths tell us? (Berghahn, 2001)
Does the Tagus estuary fish community reflect environmental changes? (Cabral et al. 2001)
Impact of climate warming on Arctic benthic biodiversity: a case study of two Arctic glacial bays (Wlodarska-Kowalczuk & Weslawski, 2001)
Assessing the impact of climate change on the Weser estuary region: an interdisciplinary approach (Schirmer & Schuchardt, 2001)
Expected effect of climate change on Sylt island: results from a multidisciplinary German project (Ahrendt, 2001)
A review of relative sea level rise caused by mining-induced subsidence in the coastal zone: some implications for increased coastal recession (Humphries, 2001)
Episodic atmospheric changes and their impact on the hydrography of coastal waters in Tanzania (Nyandwi & Dubi, 2001)
Interpolation of temperature and non-urban ozone exposure at high spatial resolution over the western United States (Lee & Hogsett, 2001)
Reconstruction of monthly 700, 500 and 300 hPa geopotential height fields in the European and Eastern North Atlantic region for the period 1901-1947 (Schmutz et al. 2001)
Impact of local climate variability on crop model estimates in the south-east of France (Courault & Ruget, 2001)
Maps of lands vulnerable to sea level rise: modeled elevations along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts (Titus & Richman, 2001)
The Climate Information System of China (Shang et al. 2001)
Phenological maps of Europe (Rötzer & Chmielewski, 2001)
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties (Soon et al. 2001)
Statistical-dynamical extrapolation of a nested regional climate simulation (Busch & Heimann, 2002)
Anthropogenic climate change shown by local wave conditions in the North Sea (Pfizenmayer & von Storch, 2002)
Asymmetric warming over coastal California and its impact on the premium wine industry (Nemani et al. 2002)
Dengue epidemics and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (Gagnon et al. 2002)
Comparison of climate change scenarios for Sweden based on statistical and dynamical downscaling of monthly precipitation (Hellström et al. 2002)
User perspectives of climate forecasts: crop producers in Pergamino, Argentina (Letson et al. 2002)
Some patterns of interaction between science and policy: Germany and climate change (Bray & Krück, 2002)
Making rain, making roads, making do: public and private adaptations to drought in Ceará, Northeast Brazil (Finan & Nelson, 2002)
Climate change in the Western Himalayas of India: a study of local perception and response (Vedwan & Rhoades, 2002)
The costs and risks of coping with drought: livelihood impacts and farmers’ responses in Burkina Faso (Roncoli et al. 2002)
Historical and human dimensions of climate variability and water resource constraint in the Senegal River Valley (Magistro & Lo, 2002)
When deserts flood: risk management and climatic processes among East African pastoralists (Little et al. 2002)
Impacts of climate variability on East African pastoralists: linking social science and remote sensing (Galvin et al. 2002)
Role of the research standpoint in integrating global-scale and local-scale research (Malone & Rayner, 2002)
Future climate change and its impacts over small island states (Lal et al. 2002)
Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century (Frich et al. 2002)
Temporal variability of climate at the US long-term ecological research (LTER) sites (Greenland & Kittel, 2002)
Climate variability from the Florida Bay sedimentary record: possible teleconnections to ENSO, PNA and CNP (Cronin et al. 2002)
Long-term variability in reconstructed and observed snow cover over the last 100 winter seasons in Cracow and Zakopane (southern Poland) (Falarz, 2002)
Annual and spatial variability of the beginning of growing season in Europe in relation to air temperature changes (Chmielewski & Rötzer, 2002)
TsuBiMo: a biosphere model of the CO2-fertilization effect (Alexandrov & Oikawa, 2002)
A relief-specific model of the ice age on the basis of uplift-controlled glacier areas in Tibet and the corresponding albedo increase as well as their positive climatological feedback by means of the global radiation geometry (Kuhle, 2002)
The North Atlantic Oscillation influence on Europe: climate impacts and associated physical mechanisms (Trigo et al. 2002)
Trends and temperature sensitivity of moisture conditions in the conterminous United States (McCabe & Wolock, 2002)
Rainfall variability in Northern Tanzania in the March-May season (long rains) and its links to large-scale climate forcing (Zorita & Tilya, 2002)
Using dendrochronology to identify major ice storm events in oak forests of southwestern Virginia (Lafon & Speer, 2002)
Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change. I. Model calibration and sensitivity analyses (Wolf, 2002)
Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change. II. Application of climate change scenarios (Wolf, 2002)
An evaluation of the nature and timing of summer human thermal discomfort in Athens, Greece (McGregor et al. 2002)
Effects of ENSO on weather-type frequencies and properties at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (McCabe & Muller, 2002)
Multi temporal scale variations of summer precipitation in wet seasons over China and their association with 500 mb geopotential height (Bao et al. 2002)
Trends of minimum and maximum temperature in Poland (Wibig & Glowicki, 2002)
Application of factor analysis for quantification of climate-forming processes in the eastern part of Baltic Sea region (Bukantis, 2002)
Construction of consistent ice core accumulation time series from large-scale meteorological data: development and description of a regression model for one North Greenland ice core (Crüger & von Storch, 2002)
Macroeconomic effects of weather shocks, 1870-1913 (Solomou & Wu, 2002)
Techniques for estimating uncertainty in climate change scenarios and impact studies (Katz, 2002)
Air flow influences on local climate: comparison of a regional climate model with observations over the United Kingdom (Turnpenny et al. 2002)
Characterisation of the shortwave radiation regime for locations at different altitudes in south-west Germany (Iziomon & Mayer, 2002)
Comparison of extremes in GCM-simulated, downscaled and observed central-European temperature series (Kysely, 2002)
Fir tree-ring reconstruction of March-July precipitation in southern Moravia (Czech Republic), 1376-1996 (Brázdil et al. 2002)
Long-term changes in landings of small pelagic fish in the eastern Adriatic-possible influence of climate oscillations over the Northern Hemisphere (Grbec et al. 2002)
Climate change as a threat to tourism in the Alps (Elsasser & Bürki, 2002)
Effects of climate change on US crop production: simulation results using two different GCM scenarios. Part I: Wheat, potato, maize, and citrus (Tubiello et al. 2002)
Simplified EOFs-three alternatives to rotation (Jolliffe et al. 2002)
A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas (New et al. 2002)
Local versus remote grid points in climate downscaling (Brinkmann, 2002)
Climate sensitivity of global terrestrial net primary production (NPP) calculated using the reduced-form model NNN (Moldenhauer & Lüdeke, 2002)
Persistence and periodicity in the precipitation series of Turkey and associations with 500 hPa geopotential heights (Türkes et al. 2002)
Anthropogenic land-use change in the North American tall grass-short grass transition and modification of near-surface hydrologic cycle (Mahmood & Hubbard, 2002)
Effects of the thermal environment on human health: an investigation of 30 years of daily mortality data from SW Germany (Laschewski & Jendritzky, 2002)
Empirically downscaled temperature scenarios for northern Europe based on a multi-model ensemble (Benestad, 2002)
Long memory in surface air temperature: detection, modeling, and application to weather derivative valuation (Caballero et al. 2002)
Relation between the onset and end of the South American summer monsoon and rainfall in subtropical South America (González et al. 2002)
Examining the onset of spring in China (Schwartz & Chen, 2002)
Identification of empirical relationships between indices of ENSO and NAO and agricultural yields in Spain (Gimeno et al. 2002)
Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. I. Model calibration and sensitivity analyses (Wolf, 2002)
Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II. Application of climate change scenarios (Wolf, 2002)
Climate and society in the US Southwest: the context for a regional assessment (Liverman & Merideth, 2002)
The climate of the US Southwest (Sheppard et al. 2002)
Weather, climate, and hydrologic forecasting for the US Southwest: a survey (Hartmann et al. 2002)
Factors affecting seasonal forecast use in Arizona water management: a case study of the 1997-98 El Niño (Pagano et al. 2002)
Climate variability and the vulnerability of ranching in southeastern Arizona: a pilot study (Eakin & Conley, 2002)
Sensitivity of urban water resources in Phoenix, Tucson, and Sierra Vista, Arizona, to severe drought (Morehouse et al. 2002)
Processes of adaptation to climate variability: a case study from the US Southwest (Finan et al. 2002)
Recent and future modulation of the annual cycle (Wallace & Osborn, 2002)
Self-organizing maps: applications to synoptic climatology (Hewitson & Crane, 2002)
Net precipitation over the Baltic Sea during present and future climate conditions (Rutgersson et al. 2002)
Modelling spatial and temporal road thermal climatology in rural and urban areas using a GIS (Bradley et al. 2002)
Growing-season temperature and soil moisture along a 10 km transect across a forested landscape (Xu et al. 2002)
Sensitivity of winter wheat yields in the Midwestern United States to future changes in climate, climate variability, and CO2 fertilization (Southworth et al. 2002)
Picturing climate change (Brönnimann, 2002)
A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate (Daly et al. 2002)
Spatial modeling of winter temperature and precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico, USA (Brown & Comrie, 2002)
El Niño-Southern Oscillation effects on peanut yield and nitrogen leaching (Mavromatis et al. 2002)
Interannual variability of the bimodal distribution of summertime rainfall over Central America and tropical storm activity in the far-eastern Pacific (Curtis, 2002)
Cyclones in the Mediterranean region: the present and the doubled CO2 climate scenarios (Lionello et al. 2002)
Climate change scenarios at Austrian National Forest Inventory sites (Matulla et al. 2002)
Decadal changes in heat-related human mortality in the eastern United States (Davis et al. 2002)
Comment on Soon et al. (2001) ‘Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties’ (Risbey, 2002)
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Risbey (2002) (Soon et al. 2002)
Sensitivity of climate change signals deduced from multi-model Monte Carlo experiments (Paeth & Hense, 2002)
Relationships between mean and standard deviation of air temperature: implications for global warming (Robeson, 2002)
A GIS based empirical model to simulate air temperature variations in the Göteborg urban area during the night (Svensson et al. 2002)
Drought analysis based on a cluster Poisson model: distribution of the most severe drought (Abaurrea & Cebrián, 2002)
Chihuahua (Mexico) winter-spring precipitation reconstructed from tree-rings, 1647-1992 (Díaz et al. 2002)
Variations of erythemal ultraviolet irradiance and dose at Tartu/Tõravere, Estonia (Eerme et al. 2002)
Vulnerability of coastal communities to sea-level rise: a case study of Cape May County, New Jersey, USA (Wu et al. 2002)
Simulating the impacts of climate change on cotton production in the Mississippi Delta (Reddy et al. 2002)
Revised 21st century temperature projections (Michaels et al. 2003)
Automated objective classification of daily circulation patterns for precipitation and temperature downscaling based on optimized fuzzy rules (Bárdossy et al. 2003)
Stochastic modeling of regime shifts (Biondi et al. 2003)
El Niño signals contained in precipitation at the East China Sea (Chang et al. 2003)
Future wind, wave and storm surge climate in the northern North Atlantic (Debernard et al. 2003)
Synoptic pressure patterns associated with major wind erosion events in southern Sweden (1973-1991) (Ekström et al. 2003)
Is there a link between the unusually wet autumns in southeastern Norway and sea-surface temperature anomalies? (Benestad & Melsom, 2003)
Relationships between climate and population dynamics of white-tailed ptarmigan Lagopus leucurus in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (Wang et al. 2003)
Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years (Soon & Baliunas, 2003)
Spatial and temporal variability of climatic seasons on the East European Plain in relation to large-scale atmospheric circulation (Jaagus et al. 2003)
Comparison of the impact of regional and North Atlantic atmospheric circulation on an aquatic ecosystem (Blenckner & Chen, 2003)
Climatic controls on the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in Northeast Asia (Lee et al. 2003)
Understanding relationships between the 1998 Yangtze River flood and northeast Eurasian blocking (Samel & Liang, 2003)
Application of daily rainfall principal component analysis to the assessment of the rainy season characteristics in Senegal (Camberlin & Diop, 2003)
Climate change and the skiing industry in southern Ontario (Canada): exploring the importance of snowmaking as a technical adaptation (Scott et al. 2003)
Multi-site simulation of precipitation by conditional resampling (Wilby et al. 2003)
Analysis of wintertime atmospheric moisture transport and its variability over southern Europe in the NCEP Reanalyses (Fernández et al. 2003)
A procedure for estimating wind waves and storm-surge climate scenarios in a regional basin: the Adriatic Sea case (Lionello et al. 2003)
Assessing future discharge of the river Rhine using regional climate model integrations and a hydrological model (Shabalova et al. 2003)
Role of orography in the spatial distribution of precipitation over the Spanish Mediterranean zone (Sotillo et al. 2003)
Global warming versus ozone depletion: failure and success in North America (Ungar, 2003)
Statistical separation of observed global and European climate data into natural and anthropogenic signals (Staeger et al. 2003)
Test for harmful collinearity among predictor variables used in modeling global temperature (Douglass et al. 2003)
Winter severity in the Great Lakes region: a tale of two oscillations (Rodionov & Assel, 2003)
Seasonal variation of the circulation types occurring over southern Greece: a 50 yr study (Kassomenos et al. 2003)
Impacts of global warming on changes in the East Asian monsoon and the related river discharge in a global time-slice experiment (Bueh et al. 2003)
Examining the onset of spring in Wisconsin (Zhao & Schwartz, 2003)
Constructing social futures for climate-change impacts and response studies: building qualitative and quantitative scenarios with the participation of stakeholders (Shackley & Deanwood, 2003)
Comment on Soon et al. (2001) ‘Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties’ (Karoly et al. 2003)
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Karoly et al. (2003) (Soon et al. 2003)
Seasonal and spatial variations of cross-correlation matrices used by stochastic weather generators (Schoof & Robeson, 2003)
Tornado hazards in the United States (Boruff et al. 2003)
Patterns of seasonal maximum snow-water equivalent over the Northern Great Plains of the United States analyzed using hybrid-modeled climatology (Grundstein, 2003)
A 15 yr climatology of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems over the central and eastern United States (Bentley & Sparks, 2003)
Response of a complex ecosystem model of the northern Adriatic Sea to a regional climate change scenario (Vichi et al. 2003)
Comparative analysis of interpolation methods in the middle Ebro Valley (Spain): application to annual precipitation and temperature (Vicente-Serrano et al. 2003)
Conditional stochastic model for generating daily precipitation time series (Busuioc & von Storch, 2003)
Climate Research: an article unleashed worldwide storms (Kinne, 2003)
Improved field reconstruction with the analog method: searching the CCA space (Fernández & Sáenz, 2003)
A statistical comparison of the stochastic weather generators WGEN and SIMMETEO (Soltani & Hoogenboom, 2003)
Sensitivity of the Baltic Sea salinity to the freshwater supply (Meier & Kauker, 2003)
Relating changes in agricultural practices to increasing dew points in extreme Chicago heat waves (Changnon et al. 2003)
Heat, mortality, and level of urbanization: measuring vulnerability across Ohio, USA (Sheridan & Dolney, 2003)
Weather, clothing and thermal adaptation to indoor climate (Morgan & de Dear, 2003)
How often can we expect a record event? (Benestad, 2003)
Temperature and precipitation scenarios for Norway: comparison of results from dynamical and empirical downscaling (Hanssen-Bauer et al. 2003)
Dry summers over northeastern South Africa and associated circulation anomalies (Mulenga et al. 2003)
Examining the ENSO-typhoon hypothesis (Elsner & Liu, 2003)
Development and validation of a high-resolution monthly gridded temperature and precipitation data set for Switzerland (1951-2000) (Gyalistras, 2003)
Worldwide fluctuations in dengue fever cases related to climate variability (Hopp & Foley, 2003)
Clustering and upscaling of station precipitation records to regional patterns using self-organizing maps (SOMs) (Crane & Hewitson, 2003)
Minimum data requirements for parameter estimation of stochastic weather generators (Soltani & Hoogenboom, 2003)
Multi-site simulation of daily precipitation and temperature conditional on the atmospheric circulation (Beersma & Buishand, 2003)
Linking global circulation model outputs to regional geomorphic models: a case study of landslide activity in New Zealand (Schmidt & Glade, 2003)
Possible impacts of Indian Ocean Dipole mode events on global climate (Saji & Yamagata, 2003)
Influence of El Niño/southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and local sea-surface temperature anomalies on peak season monsoon precipitation in India (Roy et al. 2003)
Forecast of climate-induced change in macrozoobenthos in the southern North Sea in spring (Dippner & Kröncke, 2003)
Likelihood of rapidly increasing surface temperatures unaccompanied by strong warming in the free troposphere (Chase et al. 2003)
Impact of varying the complexity of the land surface energy balance on the sensitivity of the Australian climate to increasing carbon dioxide (Pitman & McAvaney, 2003)
Baltic Sea climate: 200 yr of data on air temperature, sea level variation, ice cover, and atmospheric circulation (Omstedt et al. 2003)
Baltic Sea ice seasons in the twentieth century (Jevrejeva et al. 2003)
Variability of extreme precipitation events in Tijuana, Mexico (Cavazos & Rivas, 2003)
Predicting phenological development in winter wheat (Xue et al. 2003)
Relationships between the seasonality of temperature and ischaemic heart disease mortality: implications for climate based health forecasting (McGregor et al. 2003)
Heat-related mortality in the Czech Republic examined through synoptic and ‘traditional’ approaches (Kysely & Huth, 2003)
Impact of unusually clear weather on United States daily temperature range following 9/11/2001 (Kalkstein & Balling, 2004)
drought patterns in the Mediterranean area: the Valencia region (eastern Spain) (Vicente-Serrano et al. 2004)
Wet and dry spells within particularly wet and dry summers in the South African summer rainfall region (Cook et al. 2004)
Evaluating management options that use climate forecasts: modelling livestock production systems in the semi-arid zone of South Africa (Thornton et al. 2004)
Public perceptions of unusually warm weather in the UK: impacts, responses and adaptations (Palutikof et al. 2004)
Seasonality of climate-human mortality relationships in US cities and impacts of climate change (Davis et al. 2004)
Effect of ancient Inuit fur parka ruffs on facial heat transfer (Cotel et al. 2004)
Downscaling of GCM scenarios to assess precipitation changes in the little rainy season (March-June) in Cameroon (Penlap et al. 2004)
Statistical downscaling in European mountains: verification of reconstructed air temperature (Kettle & Thompson, 2004)
Differential impacts of climate change on the hydrology of two alpine river basins (Jasper et al. 2004)
Changes of the diurnal cycle structures of selected meteorological parameters of Potsdam Station for the summer season (Werner & Gerstengarbe, 2004)
Diurnal cycle of rainfall over the Brazilian Amazon (Angelis et al. 2004)
Impact of the 1997-98 El Niño event on the coral reef-associated echinoderm assemblage from northern Bahia, northeastern Brazil (Attrill et al. 2004)
A test of corrections for extraneous signals in gridded surface temperature data (McKitrick & Michaels, 2004)
Comparison of LARS-WG and AAFC-WG stochastic weather generators for diverse Canadian climates (Qian et al. 2004)
Analysis of silicon concentration periodicity for the past 2.4 Ma in sediments from Lake Baikal site BDP 96-2 (Dawson et al. 2004)
Dry spell frequencies and their variability over southern Africa (Usman & Reason, 2004)
Summer sea breeze, under suppressive synoptic forcing, in a hyper-arid city: Eilat, Israel (Saaroni et al. 2004)
Growing-season and degree-day scenario in Norway for 2021-2050 (Skaugen & Tveito, 2004)
Southwest Australia past and future rainfall trends (Timbal, 2004)
Storm-mediated coral colonization by an excavating Caribbean sponge (López-Victoria & Zea, 2004)
Diurnal cycle of rainfall and surface winds and the mid-summer drought of Mexico/Central America (Curtis, 2004)
Growing-season moisture variability in the eastern USA during the last 800 years (Quiring, 2004)
Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia (Meze-Hausken, 2004)
Impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the probability of dry and wet winters in Spain (Muñoz-Díaz & Rodrigo, 2004)
Summer 2003 maximum and minimum daily temperatures over a 3300 m altitudinal range in the Alps (Rebetez, 2004)
Interannual variability and lagged correlation during strong El Niño events in the Pacific Ocean (Chang et al. 2004)
Simulated sea level in past and future climates of the Baltic Sea (Meier et al. 2004)
Tropical cyclones and climate change: unresolved issues (Walsh, 2004)
Assessment of solar radiation models and temporal averaging schemes in predicting radiation and cotton production in the southern United States (Richardson & Reddy, 2004)
Climate change and the distribution of climatic resources for tourism in North America (Scott et al. 2004)
Regional trends in recent temperature indices in China (Qian & Lin, 2004)
Influence of climate variability on European agriculture-analysis of winter wheat production (Cantelaube et al. 2004)
Statistical analysis of regional climate trends in Saxony, Germany (Franke et al. 2004)
VEMAP Phase 2 bioclimatic database. I. Gridded historical (20th century) climate for modeling ecosystem dynamics across the conterminous USA (Kittel et al. 2004)
Are temperature trends affected by economic activity? Comment on McKitrick & Michaels (2004) (Benestad, 2004)
Are temperature trends affected by economic activity? Reply to Benestad (2004) (McKitrick & Michaels, 2004)
Climatic analysis of Lyme disease in the United States (Ashley & Meentemeyer, 2004)
Regional structure of global warming across China during the twentieth century (Lu et al. 2004)
Internal variability in Arctic regional climate simulations: case study for the SHEBA year (Rinke et al. 2004)
Analysis of cold spells in the Greek region (Pappas et al. 2004)
Data archive strategy for computing the long-term means of nonlinear functions in geophysical problems (Tsuang, 2004)
Long-term changes in snow cover depth in eastern Europe (Bednorz & Kossowski, 2004)
Sensitivity of Baltic Sea salinity to large perturbations in climate (Gustafsson, 2004)
Intra-urban relationship between surface geometry and urban heat island: review and new approach (Unger, 2004)
A water budget approach to predicting tree species growth and abundance, utilizing paleoclimatology sources (Dyer, 2004)
Correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and vegetation greenness in North America: CO2 fertilization effect (Lim et al. 2004)
Variability in climatology and agricultural production in China in association with the East Asian summer monsoon and El Niño Southern Oscillation (Tao et al. 2004)
Spatial interpolation techniques for climate data in the GAP region in Turkey (Apaydin et al. 2004)
Detecting hydrological landscapes over the Bay of Biscay continental shelf in spring (Planque et al. 2004)
Sensitivity of present and future surface temperatures to precipitation characteristics (Lynn et al. 2004)
Review of seasonal forecasting in South Africa: producer to end-user (Johnston et al. 2004)
Comments on the use of statistical tests in the comparison of stochastic weather generators by Qian et al. (2004) (Semenov & Welham, 2004)
Resampling tests—a possible alternative to the standard statistical tests with caution: Reply to Semenov & Welham (2004) (Qian et al. 2004)
Equity, responsibility and climate change (Muylaert et al. 2004)
Performance of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis variables in statistical downscaling of daily precipitation (Cavazos & Hewitson, 2004)
Validation of a coupled GCM and projection of summer rainfall change over South Africa, using a statistical downscaling method (Zhao et al. 2004)
Comparison of the Thornthwaite method and pan data with the standard Penman-Monteith estimates of reference evapotranspiration in China (Chen et al. 2004)
Experimental seasonal forecasts of low summer flows in the River Thames, UK, using Expert Systems (Wedgbrow et al. 2004)
Manual synoptic climate classification for the east coast of New England (USA) with an application to PM2.5 concentration (Keim et al. 2004)
Individual seasonality index of rainfall regimes in Greece (Livada & Asimakopoulos, 2004)
Effects of climate and land use on landscape soil respiration in northern Wisconsin, USA: 1972 to 2001 (Zheng et al. 2004)
ENSO impacts on regional water management: case study of the Edwards Aquifer (Texas, USA) (Chen et al. 2004)
Forecasting local daily precipitation patterns in a climate change scenario (Abaurrea & Asín, 2004)
Influence of topography on monthly rainfall distribution over East Africa (Oettli & Camberlin, 2004)
Seasonal variation in the regional structure of warming across China in the past half century (He et al. 2004)
Thermal effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the cold period of the year in Lithuania (Bukantis & Bartkeviciene, 2004)
Analysis of hot spell characteristics in the Greek region (Katsoulis & Hatzianastassiou, 2004)
Outdoor thermal comfort in the old desert city of Beni-Isguen, Algeria (Ali-Toudert et al. 2004)
Surface energy balance characteristics of a heterogeneous urban ballast facet (Weber & Kuttler, 2004)
Evaluation of the stochastic weather generators LARS-WG and AAFC-WG for climate change impact studies (Qian et al. 2005)
Sensitivity of free and forced oscillations of the Adriatic Sea to sea level rise (Lionello et al. 2005)
Probabilistic distributions of regional climate change and their application in risk analysis of wheat production (Luo et al. 2005)
Estimation of areal precipitation for runoff modelling using wind data: a case study in Sweden (Johansson & Chen, 2005)
Early nineteenth century drought in east central Sweden inferred from dendrochronological and historical archives (Linderholm & Molin, 2005)
Sea-level pressure composite mapping in dendroclimatology: advocacy and an Agathis australis (kauri) case study (Fowler, 2005)
Typhoons in the Philippine Islands, 1901-1934 (Ribera et al. 2005)
Evaluation of an improved daily solar radiation generator for the southeastern USA (Garcia et al. 2005)
The NAO signal in daily rainfall series over the Iberian Peninsula (Gallego et al. 2005)
Typology of pentad circulation anomalies over the Eastern Africa–Western Indian Ocean region, and their relationship with rainfall (Pohl et al. 2005)
Thermal structure of the atmospheric boundary layer over the South African Mpumalanga Highveld (Becker, 2005)
Uncertainties in climate change scenarios for the Czech Republic (Dubrovsky et al. 2005)
Migration dates at Eyre Bird Observatory: links with climate change? (Chambers, 2005)
Response of flower and boll development to climatic factors before and after anthesis in Egyptian cotton (Sawan et al. 2005)
Climate change impacts on wind speeds and wind energy density in northern Europe: empirical downscaling of multiple AOGCMs (Pryor et al. 2005)
Impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on relationships between temperature and the Arctic Oscillation in the USA in winter (Budikova, 2005)
Variation in sea ice cover on the east coast of Canada from 1969 to 2002: climate variability and implications for harp and hooded seals (Johnston et al. 2005)
Spatial interpolation of weekly rainfall depth in the dry zone of Sri Lanka (Jayawardene et al. 2005)
Estimating solar radiation for crop modeling using temperature data from urban and rural stations (Mavromatis & Jagtap, 2005)
Effects of climate change on international tourism (Hamilton et al. 2005)
Statistical downscaling of climate scenarios over Scandinavia (Hanssen-Bauer et al. 2005)
Influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the probability of dry and wet seasons in Spain (Muñoz-Díaz & Rodrigo, 2005)
Influence of Eurasian snow cover in spring on the Indian Ocean Dipole (Pang et al. 2005)
Temperature response rates from long-term phenological records (Menzel et al. 2005)
Growth trends in three bivalve species indicate climate forcing on the benthic ecosystem in the southeastern North Sea (Witbaard et al. 2005)
Construction of climate change scenarios for a tropical monsoon region (Das & Lohar, 2005)
Food crop production in Nigeria. I. Present effects of climate variability (Adejuwon, 2005)
Spatial patterns of the urban heat island in Zaragoza (Spain) (Vicente-Serrano et al. 2005)
Assessing public health risk due to extremely high temperature events: climate and social parameters (Vescovi et al. 2005)
Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance (Willmott & Matsuura, 2005)
Classification of synoptic patterns in the western Arctic associated with extreme events at Barrow, Alaska, USA (Cassano et al. 2005)
Cloud-to-ground flash patterns for Atlanta, Georgia (USA) from 1992 to 2003 (Stallins et al. 2005)
Climatic conditions linked to high PM10 concentration in a bi-national airshed: Nogales (Arizona, USA, and Sonora, Mexico) (Ellis et al. 2005)
Climate and small rodent dynamics in semi-arid Chile: the role of lateral and vertical perturbations and intra-specific processes (Lima et al. 2005)
Cloud occurrence and cloud properties in Ecuador (Bendix et al. 2005)
Comparison of temperatures simulated by GCMs, RCMs and statistical downscaling: potential application in studies of future crop development (Moriondo & Bindi, 2005)
Circulation types and extreme temperature changes in Greece (Maheras et al. 2005)
Analysis of consecutive droughts on the Canadian Prairies (Chipanshi et al. 2005)
Influence of urban morphology and sea breeze on hot humid microclimate: the case of Colombo, Sri Lanka (Emmanuel & Johansson, 2005)
Impacts of urbanization on land-atmosphere carbon exchange within a metropolitan area in the USA (Diem et al. 2005)
Modelling of the annual mean maximum urban heat island using 2D and 3D surface parameters (Unger, 2005)
Comparative analysis of albedo and surface energy balance of a grassland site and an adjacent Scots pine forest (Rost & Mayer, 2005)
Application of seasonal climate outlooks to forecast sugarcane production in South Africa (Bezuidenhout & Schulze, 2005)
Effects of climate change on growth criteria and yield of sunflower and chickpea crops in Iran (Koocheki et al. 2005)
Climatic trends in Cameroon: implications for agricultural management (Molua, 2005)
Growth anomalies in Protothaca thaca (Mollusca, Veneridae) shells as markers of ENSO conditions (Lazareth et al. 2005)
Temperature extremes in Europe and wintertime large-scale atmospheric circulation: HadCM3 future scenarios (Santos & Corte-Real, 2006)
Non-linear regional relationships between climate extremes and annual mean temperatures in model projections for 1961-2099 over Europe (Good et al. 2006)
Defining dry/wet spells for point observations, observed area averages, and regional climate model gridboxes in Europe (Bärring et al. 2006)
Precipitation extremes in the changing climate of Europe (Kundzewicz et al. 2006)
Analysis of frequency and intensity of European winter storm events from a multi-model perspective, at synoptic and regional scales (Leckebusch et al. 2006)
Assessment of the impacts of climate change and weather extremes on boreal forests in northern Europe, focusing on Norway spruce (Schlyter et al. 2006)
Potential impact of climate change on fire risk in the Mediterranean area (Moriondo et al. 2006)
Trends in energy load demand for Athens, Greece: weather and non-weather related factors (Giannakopoulos & Psiloglou, 2006)
Impacts of short-term climate variability in the UK on demand for domestic and international tourism (Agnew & Palutikof, 2006)
Bridging the gap between science and the stakeholder: the case of climate change research (Hanson et al. 2006)
Mid-Pliocene warm climate and annual primary productivity peaks recorded in sapropel deposition (Capozzi et al. 2006)
Microalgal lipid markers for paleoclimatic research (Serrazanetti et al. 2006)
Anomalous Po River flood event effects on sediments and the water column of the northwestern Adriatic Sea (Frascari et al. 2006)
Climate vs. anthropogenic changes in North Adriatic shelf sediments influenced by freshwater runoff (Alvisi et al. 2006)
Effects of environmental variables on recruitment of anchovy in the Adriatic Sea (Santojanni et al. 2006)
Long-term copepod dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea): recent changes and trends (Kamburska & Fonda-Umani, 2006)
Vertical distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Mediterranean Sea (Santinelli et al. 2006)
Observed temperature changes in Emilia-Romagna: mean values and extremes (Tomozeiu et al. 2006)
Short-term physical and chemical variations in the bottom water of middle Adriatic depressions (Marini et al. 2006)
Ventilation of deep waters in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas following changes in thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean (Manca et al. 2006)
Decadal oscillations in the Mediterranean Sea: a result of the overturning circulation variability in the eastern basin? (Pisacane et al. 2006)
Potential effect of climate change on the distribution of palsa mires in subarctic Fennoscandia (Fronzek et al. 2006)
Climatology of winter cold spells in relation to mountain pine beetle mortality in British Columbia, Canada (Stahl et al. 2006)
Correlates of Canadian Prairie summer rainfall: implications for crop yields (Garnett et al. 2006)
Relationships between NW flow snowfall and topography in the Southern Appalachians, USA (Perry & Konrad, 2006)
Interannual variability in dry and wet spell characteristics over Zambia (Hachigonta & Reason, 2006)
Influence of teleconnection patterns on precipitation variability and on river flow regimes in the Miño River basin (NW Iberian Peninsula) (deCastro et al. 2006)
Climate potential and tourist demand in Catalonia (Spain) during the summer season (Gómez-Martín, 2006)
Phenological response of plants to temperature varies at the same latitude: case study of dog violet and horse chestnut in England and Poland (Tryjanowski et al. 2006)
Winter climate and plant productivity predict abundances of small herbivores in central Europe (Tkadlec et al. 2006)
Effects of regime shifts on the population dynamics of the grey-sided vole in Hokkaido, Japan (Saitoh et al. 2006)
Influences of large-scale climatic variability on reindeer population dynamics: implications for reindeer husbandry in Norway (Weladji & Holand, 2006)
Predicting nonlinear and non-additive effects of climate: the Alpine ibex revisited (Lima & Berryman, 2006)
Comment on Lima & Berryman (2006): the Alpine ibex revisited (Jacobson et al. 2006)
Age structure matters for Alpine ibex population dynamics: comment on Lima & Berryman (2006) (Yoccoz & Gaillard, 2006)
Problems and pitfalls in relating climate variability to population dynamics (Krebs & Berteaux, 2006)
Constraints to projecting the effects of climate change on mammals (Berteaux et al. 2006)
Adapting to Pacific Island mangrove responses to sea level rise and climate change (Gilman et al. 2006)
East-west asymmetry in long-term trends of landfast ice thickness in the Hudson Bay region, Canada (Gagnon & Gough, 2006)
Swiss Alpine snow pack variability: major patterns and links to local climate and large-scale flow (Scherrer & Appenzeller, 2006)
Farmers’ annual activities are not tracking the speed of climate change (Menzel et al. 2006)
Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in East China from 1880 to 1999 (Qian et al. 2006)
Influence of climate on winter wheat productivity in different climate regions of China, 1961-2000 (Song et al. 2006)
Food crop production in Nigeria. II. Potential effects of climate change (Adejuwon, 2006)
Influence of climatic factors on the growth and yield of sugar cane at Numan, Nigeria (Binbol et al. 2006)
Responses of leaf colouring in four deciduous tree species to climate and weather in Germany (Estrella & Menzel, 2006)
Climate prediction and agriculture: current status and future challenges (Sivakumar, 2007)
Developments in dynamical seasonal forecasting relevant to agricultural management (Doblas-Reyes et al. 2007)
Translating climate forecasts into agricultural terms: advances and challenges (Hansen et al. 2007)
Economics and climate applications: exploring the frontier (Rubas et al. 2007)
Ex ante impact assessment and seasonal climate forecasts: status and issues (Thornton, 2007)
Ex post assessment methods of climate forecast impacts (Msangi et al. 2007)
Ethnographic and participatory approaches to research on farmers’ responses to climate predictions (Roncoli, 2007)
Actionable climate knowledge: from analysis to synthesis (Meinke et al. 2007)
Who can eat information? Examining the effectiveness of seasonal climate forecasts and regional climate-risk management strategies (Vogel & O’Brien, 2007)
Use of climate information in soybean farming on the Argentinean pampas (Bert et al. 2007)
Frequency and severity of drought in the Lake Victoria region (Kenya) and its effects on food security (Awange et al. 2007)
Hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Upper Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, USA (Graves & Chang, 2007)
Recent California climate variability: spatial and temporal patterns in temperature trends (LaDochy et al. 2007)
Determinants of changes in the regional urban heat island in metropolitan Phoenix (Arizona, USA) between 1990 and 2004 (Brazel et al. 2007)
Relationships between Antarctic sea-ice and South African winter rainfall (Blamey & Reason, 2007)
Testing a climate erosive forcing model in the Po River Basin (Diodato & Mariani, 2007)
Interaction between genetic diversity and temperature stress on life-cycle parameters and genetic variability in midge Chironomus riparius populations (Vogt et al. 2007)
Regionalization and trends in winter precipitation in the northwestern USA (Miller & Goodrich, 2007)
Historical comparison of the 2001/2002 drought in the Canadian Prairies (Bonsal & Regier, 2007)
Regional growth curves and improved design value estimates of extreme precipitation events in the Czech Republic (Kysely & Picek, 2007)
Mapping snowpack distribution over large areas using GIS and interpolation techniques (López-Moreno et al. 2007)
Climate and the match or mismatch between predator requirements and resource availability (Durant et al. 2007)
Historical changes in extreme precipitation events in the tropical Pacific region (Greene et al. 2007)
Decadal changes in water temperature and ecological time series in Lake Geneva, Europe—relationship to subtropical Atlantic climate variability (Molinero et al. 2007)
Modelling future water environments of Tasmania, Australia (Nunez & McGregor, 2007)
The urban heat island in Salamanca (Spain) and its relationship to meteorological parameters (Alonso et al. 2007)
Measuring the risk of climate variability to cereal production at five sites in Spain (Iglesias & Quiroga, 2007)
Potential effects of changes in mean climate and climate variability on the yield of winter and spring crops in Switzerland (Torriani et al. 2007)
Utility of dynamical seasonal forecasts in predicting crop yield (Semenov & Doblas-Reyes, 2007)
Canadian hare-lynx dynamics and climate variation: need for further interdisciplinary work on the interface between ecology and climate (Stenseth, 2007)
Vertebrate phenology at similar latitudes: temperature responses differ between Poland and the United Kingdom (Sparks et al. 2007)
Winter flowering phenology of Japanese apricot Prunus mume reflects climate change across Japan (Doi, 2007)
Effects of climate change and CO2 increase on potential agricultural production in Southern Québec, Canada (Brassard & Singh, 2007)
Global diarrhoea morbidity, weather and climate (Lloyd et al. 2007)
Generalized linear modeling approach to stochastic weather generators (Furrer & Katz, 2007)
GCM grid-box choice and predictor selection associated with statistical downscaling of daily precipitation over Northern Ireland (Crawford et al. 2007)
Methodology for mobile measurements of carbon dioxide within the urban canopy layer (Henninger & Kuttler, 2007)
Statistical downscaling of precipitation through nonhomogeneous stochastic weather typing (Vrac et al. 2007)
Estimation of a large quantile of the distribution of multi-day seasonal maximum rainfall: the value of stochastic simulation of long-duration sequences (Buishand, 2007)
Novel methods for inferring future changes in extreme rainfall over Northern Europe (Benestad, 2007)
Assessing uncertainties in crop model simulations using daily bias-corrected Regional Circulation Model outputs (Baigorria et al. 2007)
Effects of climate variation on winter cereal production in Spain (Rodríguez-Puebla et al. 2007)
Climatology of growing degree days in Greece (Matzarakis et al. 2007)
Urban heat islands in humid and arid climates: role of urban form and thermal properties in Colombo, Sri Lanka and Phoenix, USA (Emmanuel & Fernando, 2007)
Historical emissions, by country, of N2O from animal manure management and of CH4 from enteric fermentation in domestic livestock (Muylaert de Araujo et al. 2007)
The North Atlantic Oscillation and ecology: links between historical time-series, and lessons regarding future climate warming (Straile & Stenseth, 2007)
Phenotypic changes in spring arrival: evolution, phenotypic plasticity, effects of weather and condition (Pulido, 2007)
Responses to climate change in avian migration time—microevolution versus phenotypic plasticity (Gienapp et al. 2007)
Why are bird migration dates shifting? A review of weather and climate effects on avian migratory phenology (Gordo, 2007)
Characterizing bird migration phenology using data from standardized monitoring at bird observatories (Knudsen et al. 2007)
Migration speed and scheduling of annual events by migrating birds in relation to climate change (Hedenström et al. 2007)
Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration throughout Europe (Both & te Marvelde, 2007)
Effects of climate change on the degree of protandry in migratory songbirds (Rainio et al. 2007)
Linking fluctuations in rainfall to nonbreeding season performance in a long-distance migratory bird, Setophaga ruticilla (Studds & Marra, 2007)
Temperature and rainfall anomalies in Africa predict timing of spring migration in trans-Saharan migratory birds (Saino et al. 2007)
Intraspecific consistency and geographic variability in temporal trends of spring migration phenology among European bird species (Rubolini et al. 2007)
Climate changes and post-nuptial migration strategy by two reedbed passerines (Péron et al. 2007)
Patterns of spring arrival dates differ in two hirundines (Sparks & Tryjanowski, 2007)
The complexity of predicting climate-induced ecological impacts (Mustin et al. 2007)
Bird migration and climate: the general picture and beyond (Jonzén et al. 2007)
Downscaling regional climate model estimates of daily precipitation, temperature and solar radiation data (Rivington et al. 2007)
Simulation of extreme weather events by a stochastic weather generator (Semenov, 2007)
Potential changes in Korean water resources estimated by high-resolution climate simulation (Bae et al. 2007)
Estimating future runoff levels for a semi-arid fluvial system in central Arizona, USA (Ellis et al. 2007)
Influence of climate variability on wine regions in the western USA and on wine quality in the Napa Valley (Jones & Goodrich, 2007)
Climate change effects on snow conditions in mainland Australia and adaptation at ski resorts through snowmaking (Hennessy et al. 2007)
Regional climate model simulations of North Atlantic cyclones: frequency and intensity changes (Semmler et al. 2008)
Ice regime dynamics in the Nemunas River, Lithuania (Stonevicius et al. 2008)
Changes in storminess on the western coast of Estonia in relation to large-scale atmospheric circulation (Jaagus et al. 2008)
Nature and causes of the 2002 to 2004 drought in the southwestern United States compared with the historic 1953 to 1957 drought (Quiring & Goodrich, 2008)
Drought stress patterns in Italy using agro-climatic indicators (Diodato & Bellocchi, 2008)
Effects of climate change on crop production in Cameroon (Tingem et al. 2008)
Effects of climatic variation and warming on rice development across South China (Lu et al. 2008)
Modelling the relationship between climate, winegrape price and winegrape quality in Australia (Webb et al. 2008)
Climate change and winegrape quality in Australia (Webb et al. 2008)
Strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation events and the economics of the international rice market (Chen et al. 2008)
Climate and nutrient influences on the growth of white spruce trees in the boreal forests of the Yukon (Boonstra et al. 2008)
Predicting endemic cholera: the role of climate variability and disease dynamics (Pascual et al. 2008)
Developing regional climate change scenarios for use in assessment of effects on human health and disease (Giorgi & Diffenbaugh, 2008)
Heat waves across Europe by the end of the 21st century: multiregional climate simulations (Koffi & Koffi, 2008)
Influence of atmospheric modes on coastal upwelling along the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula, 1985 to 2005 (deCastro et al. 2008)
Heterogeneous intra-annual climatic changes drive different phenological responses at two trophic levels (Doi et al. 2008)
Simulated effects of climate change, fragmentation, and inter-specific competition on tree species migration in northern Wisconsin, USA (Scheller & Mladenoff, 2008)
Sensitivity of the snow energy balance to climatic changes: prediction of snowpack in the Pyrenees in the 21st century (López-Moreno et al. 2008)
Estimation of solar radiation and its application to crop simulation models in Greece (Mavromatis, 2008)
Forecasting water allocations for Bundaberg sugarcane farmers (Everingham et al. 2008)
Fluctuations of winter wheat yields in relation to length of winter in Sweden 1866 to 2006 (Holmer, 2008)
Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Mediterranean deep-sea shrimp landings (Maynou, 2008)
Frameworks for analyzing the economic effects of climate change on outdoor recreation (Shaw & Loomis, 2008)
Effect of the Arctic Oscillation on precipitation in the eastern USA during ENSO winters (Budikova, 2008)
Performance of stochastic weather generators LARS-WG and AAFC-WG for reproducing daily extremes of diverse Canadian climates (Qian et al. 2008)
Large-scale climatic patterns forcing desert locust upsurges in West Africa (Vallebona et al. 2008)
Influence of climate change on agricultural land-use potential: adapting and updating the land capability system for Scotland (Brown et al. 2008)
Characterising the agro-meteorological implications of climate change scenarios for land management stakeholders (Matthews et al. 2008)
Climate change in the uplands: a UK perspective on safeguarding regulatory ecosystem services (Orr et al. 2008)
Influences of meteorological parameters and biological and chemical air pollutants on the incidence of asthma and rhinitis (Makra et al. 2008)
Complex interactions in a rapidly changing world: responses of rocky shore communities to recent climate change (Hawkins et al. 2008)
Changes in depth distribution and biomass of sublittoral seaweeds at Helgoland (North Sea) between 1970 and 2005 (Pehlke & Bartsch, 2008)
Vulnerability of Antarctic shelf biodiversity to predicted regional warming (Barnes & Peck, 2008)
Southern Ocean deep-sea biodiversity: sampling strategies and predicting responses to climate change (Kaiser & Barnes, 2008)
Interactive effects of metal pollution and temperature on metabolism in aquatic ectotherms: implications of global climate change (Sokolova & Lannig, 2008)
Interactive effects of UV radiation and temperature on microstages of Laminariales (Phaeophyceae) from the Arctic and North Sea (Müller et al. 2008)
Effects of CO2-induced seawater acidification on the health of Mytilus edulis (Beesley et al. 2008)
Indicators of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Wittmann et al. 2008)
Effects of cold winters and climate on the temporal variability of an epibenthic community in the German Bight (Neumann et al. 2008)
Cod and climate in a latitudinal cline: physiological analyses of climate effects in marine fishes (Pörtner et al. 2008)
Structure and trends in climate parameters affecting winegrape production in northeast Spain (Ramos et al. 2009)
Development and greenhouse gas emissions deviate from the ‘modernization’ theory and ‘convergence’ hypothesis (Romero Lankao et al. 2009)
Downscaling experiment for the Venice lagoon. I.Validation of the present-day precipitation climatology (Salon et al. 2009)
Downscaling experiment for the Venice lagoon. II. Effects of changes in precipitation on biogeochemical properties (Cossarini et al. 2009)
Preferred climates for tourism: case studies from Canada, New Zealand and Sweden (Scott et al. 2009)
Rainfall variability and vegetation dynamics in the Mauritanian Sahel (Ahmedou et al. 2009)
Climate-crop yield relationships at provincial scales in China and the impacts of recent climate trends (Tao et al. 2009)
United States drought of 2007: historical perspectives (Maxwell & Soulé, 2009)
Mortality during heat waves in South Korea, 1991 to 2005: How exceptional was the 1994 heat wave? (Kysely & Kim, 2009)
Ensemble yield simulations: crop and climate uncertainties, sensitivity to temperature and genotypic adaptation to climate change (Challinor et al. 2009)
Drought variations in the eastern part of northwest China over the past two centuries: evidence from tree rings (Fang et al. 2009)
Sea ice, climate change, and community vulnerability in northern Foxe Basin, Canada (Ford et al. 2009)
Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to ENSO-related drought in Indonesia (Keil et al. 2009)
GIS-based techniques for urban heat island-spatialization (Szymanowski & Kryza, 2009)
Earliest recorded Tatarstan skylark in 2008: non-linear response to temperature suggests advances in arrival dates may accelerate (Askeyev et al. 2009)
Effect of south winds on daily mortality in Athens (Papadopoulou et al. 2009)
Climate variation and bird breeding seasons in a primeval temperate forest (Wesolowski & Cholewa, 2009)
Analysis of the 1998 to 2005 drought over the northeastern highlands of Tanzania (Kijazi & Reason, 2009)
Relationship between ocean climatic variability and rain-fed agriculture in northeast Brazil (Brabo Alves et al. 2009)
Seasonal weather effects on the common eider, a subarctic capital breeder, in Iceland over 55 years (Jónsson et al. 2009)
Effects of rainfall variation on rice production in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin (Asada & Matsumoto, 2009)
Climate change and large-scale degradation of spruce: common pattern across the globe (Uniyal & Uniyal, 2009)
Climate change analogue analysis of ski tourism in the northeastern USA (Dawson et al. 2009)
Mediterranean Sea surface warming 1985-2006 (Nykjaer, 2009)
Household heating and cooling energy use in the northeast USA: comparing the effects of climate change with those of purposive behaviors (Shorr et al. 2009)
Climate change and drought: a risk assessment of crop-yield impacts (Li et al. 2009)
Crop model validation and sensitivity to climate change scenarios (El Maayar et al. 2009)
Effect of land cover on air temperatures involved in the development of an intra-urban heat island (Yokobori & Ohta, 2009)
Investigation of Hurricane Katrina characteristics for future, warmer climates (Lynn et al. 2009)
Damage costs of climate change through intensification of tropical cyclone activities: an application of FUND (Narita et al. 2009)
Modelling near-surface temperature conditions in high mountain environments: an appraisal (Pape et al. 2009)
Easter Island: climate change might have contributed to past cultural and societal changes (Stenseth & Voje, 2009)
Pros and cons of using seabirds as ecological indicators (Durant et al. 2009)
Temperature, aridity thresholds, and population growth dynamics in China over the last millennium (Lee et al. 2009)
Effect of wind speed on sunshine hours in three cities in northern China (Yang et al. 2009)
Assessing the impact of climate change on extreme fire weather events over southeastern Australia (Hasson et al. 2009)
Temperature sensitivity of Swiss and British plant phenology from 1753 to 1958 (Rutishauser et al. 2009)
Changes and patterns in biologically relevant temperatures in Europe 1941-2000 (Sparks et al. 2009)
Influence of climate change on phenological phases in Latvia and Lithuania (Kalvāne et al. 2009)
Advancing phenology in Europe’s last lowland primeval forest: non-linear temperature response (Sparks et al. 2009)
Influence of altitude on phenology of selected plant species in the Alpine region (1971-2000) (Ziello et al. 2009)
Effects of temperature, phase type and timing, location, and human density on plant phenological responses in Europe (Estrella et al. 2009)
Spatial variation in onset dates and trends in phenology across Europe (Schleip et al. 2009)
Tree phenology and carbon dioxide fluxes: use of digital photography for process-based interpretation at the ecosystem scale (Ahrends et al. 2009)
Growing-season trends in Fennoscandia 1982-2006, determined from satellite and phenology data (Karlsen et al. 2009)
Effects of local and global change on an inland sea: the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada (Johannessen & Macdonald, 2009)
Potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on China’s rice yield and production (Xiong et al. 2009)
Spatio-temporal changes in annual accumulated temperature in China and the effects on cropping systems, 1980s to 2000 (Dong et al. 2009)
Seasonal and interannual variations of surface climate elements over Vietnam (Phan et al. 2009)
User community preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures around Hainich National Park, Germany (Rajmis et al. 2009)
Effects of total aerosol on temperature and precipitation in East Asia (Wu et al. 2009)
Simulating streamflow response to climate scenarios in central Canada using a simple statistical downscaling method (Choi et al. 2009)
Factors influencing the use of climate information by Colorado municipal water managers (Lowrey et al. 2009)
Climate change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: challenges and opportunities (Ziervogel & Zermoglio, 2009)
Growing-season rainfall and scenarios of future change in southeast Africa: implications for cultivating maize (Tadross et al. 2009)
Transfer of climate knowledge via a regional climate-change management body to support vulnerability, impact assessments and adaptation measures (Vescovi et al. 2009)
Public health vulnerability to climate change in Brazil (Confalonieri et al. 2009)
Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change of rural inhabitants in the central coastal plain of El Salvador (Aguilar et al. 2009)
Decadal climate variability in the Argentine Pampas: regional impacts of plausible climate scenarios on agricultural systems (Podestá et al. 2009)
Responding to the challenges of climate change in the Pacific Islands: management and technological imperatives (Nunn, 2009)
Potential synergy between adaptation and mitigation strategies: production of vegetable oils and biodiesel in northeastern Brazil (La Rovere et al. 2009)
Projection of temperature over Korea using an MM5 regional climate simulation (Koo et al. 2009)
Applying Bayesian modelling to assess climate change effects on biofuel production (Peter et al. 2009)
Use of multi-model ensembles from global climate models for assessment of climate change impacts (Semenov & Stratonovitch, 2010)
Spatial changes in the sensitivity of Atlantic cod to climate-driven effects in the plankton (Beaugrand & Kirby, 2010)
Urban effects on the diurnal temperature cycle in Phoenix, Arizona (Svoma & Brazel, 2010)
Climate-growth relationships of Qilian juniper Sabina przewalskii in the Anyemaqen Mountains, Tibet (Peng et al. 2010)
Climate change and human health: an environmental perspective (Singh, 2010)
Major sources of moisture for Antarctic ice-core sites identified through a Lagrangian approach (Nieto et al. 2010)
Characteristics of the dry/wet trend over arid central Asia over the past 100 years (Wang et al. 2010)
Upgrades to the reliability ensemble averaging method for producing probabilistic climate-change projections (Xu et al. 2010)
Dust storm frequency after the 1999 drought in the Sistan region, Iran (Miri et al. 2010)
Modelling the effects of land-cover changes on surface climate in the Mediterranean region (Anav et al. 2010)
Extreme wind climatology of winter storms in Germany (Hofherr & Kunz, 2010)
Assessing the spatial signature of European climate reconstructions (Büntgen et al. 2010)
Comparing scenarios of Canadian daily climate extremes derived using a weather generator (Qian et al. 2010)
Milankovitch forcing in paleoclimate data (Matyasovszky, 2010)
More variable tropical climates have a slower demographic growth (Camberlin, 2010)
Tree-ring based winter temperature reconstruction for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southeast China (Shi et al. 2010)
Regional characteristics of Arctic temperature variability: comparison of observations with regional climate simulations (Rinke et al. 2010)
The challenge of adapting grapevine varieties to climate change (Duchêne et al. 2010)
Simple statistical approach for computing land cover types and potential natural vegetation (Zampieri & Lionello, 2010)
Transient responses to increasing CO2 and climate change in an unfertilized grass-clover sward (Lazzarotto et al. 2010)
Geographical and climatic effects on precipitation and pan evaporation (Rim, 2010)
Natural disasters in northwestern China, AD 1270-1949 (Lee & Zhang, 2010)
Climate change and altitudinal variation in sexual size dimorphism of arctic wolf spiders (Høye & Hammel, 2010)
Changes in dengue risk potential in Hawaii, USA, due to climate variability and change (Kolivras, 2010)
Effect of global change on bivalve rearing activity and the need for adaptive management (Melaku Canu et al. 2010)
European storminess and associated circulation weather types: future changes deduced from a multi-model ensemble of GCM simulations (Donat et al. 2010)
Migratory behaviour constrains the phenological response of birds to climate change (Rubolini et al. 2010)
Decreasing wind speed and weakening latitudinal surface pressure gradients in the Tibetan Plateau (You et al. 2010)
Modelled effects of rising CO2 concentration and climate change on native perennial grass and sown grass-legume pastures (Perring et al. 2010)
Projected change in heat waves over China using the PRECIS climate model (Yang et al. 2010)
Surface air temperature variability over India during 1901-2007, and its association with ENSO (Kothawale et al. 2010)
Influence of point-of-departure climate variables on the passage dates of two long-distance migrants in Eilat (Horev et al. 2010)
Effects of changes in climatic variability on agricultural production (Luo et al. 2010)
Crop yield trends in relation to temperature indices and a growth model (Eckersten et al. 2010)
Trends in rainfall and extreme temperatures in northwestern Mexico (Gutiérrez-Ruacho et al. 2010)
Analysis of growing degree-days as a climate impact indicator in a region with extreme annual air temperature amplitude (Grigorieva et al. 2010)
Can oceanic foams limit global warming? (Evans et al. 2010)
Climatological modeling of monthly air temperature and precipitation in Egypt through GIS techniques (El Kenawy et al. 2010)
Continuous sky view factor maps from high resolution urban digital elevation models (Lindberg & Grimmond, 2010)
Recent trends in the climate of Bangladesh (Shahid, 2010)
Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA (Piazza et al. 2010)
Scaling of the urban heat island effect based on the energy balance: nighttime minimum temperature increase vs. urban area length scale (Lee & Ho, 2010)
Rapid advances in the timing of the spring passage migration through Israel of the steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis (Zduniak et al. 2010)
Climatological aspects of South Pacific tropical cyclones, based on analysis of the RSMC-Nadi (Fiji) regional archive (Terry & Gienko, 2010)
Changes in climate and secular population cycles in China, 1000 CE to 1911 (Lee & Zhang, 2010)
Air temperature trends and extremes in Chisinau (Moldova) as evidence of climate change (Corobov et al. 2010)
Climate-induced changes in the North Sea Decapoda over the last 60 years (Lindley & Kirby, 2010)
Adapting to climate change: a perspective from evolutionary physiology (Chown et al. 2010)
Exploring plastic and genetic responses to temperature variation using copper butterflies (Fischer & Karl, 2010)
Contrasting effects of environmental factors during larval stage on morphological plasticity in post-metamorphic frogs (Tejedo et al. 2010)
Genetic variation in heat resistance and HSP70 expression in inbred isofemale lines of the springtail Orchesella cincta (Bahrndorff et al. 2010)
Temperature-maternal age interactions on wing traits in outbred Drosophila mercatorum (Kjærsgaard et al. 2010)
Interplay between habitat fragmentation and climate change: inbreeding affects the response to thermal stress in Drosophila melanogaster (Joubert & Bijlsma, 2010)
Thermal plasticity of wing size and shape in Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans and their hybrids (Trotta et al. 2010)
Experimental thermal microevolution in community-embedded Daphnia populations (Van Doorslaer et al. 2010)
Geographic variation in thermal plasticity of life history and wing pattern in Bicyclus anynana (de Jong et al. 2010)
Climate change and chromosomal inversions in Drosophila subobscura (Rezende et al. 2010)
Effects of maternal and offspring environmental conditions on growth, development and diapause in latitudinal yellow dung fly populations (Scharf et al. 2010)
Locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster in high temperature environments: plastic and evolutionary responses (Kjærsgaard et al. 2010)
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and resilience of vertebrates to increasing climatic unpredictability (Canale & Henry, 2010)
Impacts of climate variability on the tuna economy of Seychelles (Robinson et al. 2010)
Climate change scenarios applied to viticultural zoning in Europe (Malheiro et al. 2010)
Trends in temperature and precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau, 1961-2005 (Lu & Liu, 2010)
Statistical modeling of hot spells and heat waves (Furrer et al. 2010)
Statistical relationships between the North Atlantic Oscillation and international tourism demand in the Balearic Islands, Spain (Álvarez-Díaz et al. 2010)
Precipitation trends in Spanish hydrological divisions, 1946–2005 (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al. 2010)
Desert locust populations, rainfall and climate change: insights from phenomenological models using gridded monthly data (Tratalos et al. 2010)
Areal downscaling of global climate models: an approach that avoids data remodeling (Charlery & Nurse, 2010)
The impact of climate change on ski season length and snowmaking requirements in Tyrol, Austria (Steiger, 2010)
Simulation of the surface temperature anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere during the last 300 years of the Little Ice Age using a thermodynamic model (Mendoza et al. 2010)
ELPIS: a dataset of local-scale daily climate scenarios for Europe (Semenov et al. 2010)
A universal multifractal description applied to precipitation patterns of the Ebro River Basin, Spain (Valencia et al. 2010)
Responses of reference evapotranspiration to changes in atmospheric humidity and air temperature in Spain (Moratiel et al. 2010)
Using ERA-INTERIM for regional crop yield forecasting in Europe (de Wit et al. 2010)
Modelling climate impacts on crop yields in Belgium (Gobin, 2010)
Evaluating uncertainty in climate change impacts on crop productivity in the Iberian Peninsula (Ruiz-Ramos & Mínguez, 2010)
Climate change and agricultural adaptation: assessing management uncertainty for four crop types in Spain (Iglesias et al. 2010)
Estimating the impact of climate change on the occurrence of selected pests in the Central European region (Kocmánková et al. 2010)
Effect of temperature increase on cooling systems in livestock farms (Valiño et al. 2010)
Model weighting based on mesoscale structures in precipitation and temperature in an ensemble of regional climate models (Coppola et al. 2010)
Daily and monthly temperature and precipitation statistics as performance indicators for regional climate models (Kjellström et al. 2010)
Exploring metrics of extreme daily precipitation in a large ensemble of regional climate model simulations (Lenderink, 2010)
Validation of temperature trends in the ENSEMBLES regional climate model runs driven by ERA40 (Lorenz & Jacob, 2010)
Weight assignment in regional climate models (Christensen et al. 2010)
Weighted frequency distributions express modelling uncertainties in the ENSEMBLES regional climate experiments (Déqué & Somot, 2010)
Benefits and limitations of regional multi-model ensembles for storm loss estimations (Donat et al. 2010)
Bayesian multi-model projections of climate: generalization and application to ENSEMBLES results (Buser et al. 2010)
Carbon balance of UK peatlands: current state of knowledge and future research challenges (Billett et al. 2011)
Impact of gully erosion on carbon sequestration in blanket peatlands (Evans & Lindsay, 2011)
Increases in humic dissolved organic carbon export from upland peat catchments: the role of temperature, declining sulphur deposition and changes in land management (Yallop et al. 2011)
Changing temperature and rainfall gradients in the British Uplands (Burt & Holden, 2011)
Developing site scale projections of climate change in the Scottish Highlands (Coll et al. 2011)
Assessment of projected changes in upland environments using simple climatic indices (Clark et al. 2011)
Climate change and the future occurrence of moorland wildfires in the Peak District of the UK (Albertson et al. 2011)
Using diet to assess the sensitivity of northern and upland birds to climate change (Pearce-Higgins, 2011)
Assessing the vulnerability of blanket peat to climate change using an ensemble of statistical bioclimatic envelope models (Clark et al. 2011)
Bioclimatic envelope model of climate change impacts on blanket peatland distribution in Great Britain (Gallego-Sala et al. 2011)
Impacts of pollution and climate change on ombrotrophic Sphagnum species in the UK: analysis of uncertainties in two empirical niche models (Smart et al. 2011)
Estimating changes in Scottish soil carbon stocks using ECOSSE. I. Model description and uncertainties (Smith et al. 2011)
Estimating changes in Scottish soil carbon stocks using ECOSSE. II. Application (Smith et al. 2011)
The MILLENNIA peat cohort model: predicting past, present and future soil carbon budgets and fluxes under changing climates in peatlands (Heinemeyer et al. 2011)
Model inter-comparison between statistical and dynamic model assessments of the long-term stability of blanket peat in Great Britain (1940-2099) (Clark et al. 2011)
Effects of climate change on the societal benefits of UK upland peat ecosystems: applying the ecosystem approach (Maltby, 2011)
Valuing ecosystem benefits in a dynamic world (Cornell, 2011)
Impacts of snow conditions on tourism demand in Austrian ski areas (Töglhofer et al. 2011)
The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): unforeseen successes in animal ecology (Pettorelli et al. 2011)
Large-scale atmospheric dynamics of the wet winter 2009–2010 and its impact on hydrology in Portugal (Andrade et al. 2011)
Long-term variation in soil temperature of the Mojave Desert, southwestern USA (Bai et al. 2011)
Extreme winter precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula in 2010: anomalies, driving mechanisms and future projections (Vicente-Serrano et al. 2011)
Climate fluctuations in time and space (Zurbenko & Cyr, 2011)
Rainfall variability in ecosystem CO2 flux studies (Hao et al. 2011)
Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon using comprehensive atmosphere-land interactions, in the absence of two-way air-sea interactions (Lim et al. 2011)
Hydro-meteorological trends in the upper Indus River basin in Pakistan (Khattak et al. 2011)
Decline in wintertime air-mass transition frequencies in the USA (Hondula & Davis, 2011)
Evaluation of climate change impacts and adaptation measures for rice cultivation in Northeast Thailand (Babel et al. 2011)
Modelling the timing of Betula pubescens budburst. I. Temperature and photoperiod: a conceptual model (Caffarra et al. 2011)
Modelling the timing of Betula pubescens budburst. II. Integrating complex effects of photoperiod into process-based models (Caffarra et al. 2011)
Observed changes in snow depth and number of snow days in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (You et al. 2011)
Detailed assessment of climate variability in the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958 to 2009 (Lehmann et al. 2011)
Ability of RCM/GCM couples to represent the relationship of large scale circulation to climate extremes over the Mediterranean region (Flocas et al. 2011)
Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique (Harrison et al. 2011)
Effects of climate change on maize production, and potential adaptation measures: a case study in Jilin Province, China (Wang et al. 2011)
Western European climate, and Pinot noir grape harvest dates in Burgundy, France, since the 17th century (Tourre et al. 2011)
Anthropic land use causes summer cooling in -Central Europe (Zampieri & Lionello, 2011)
Vanishing winters in Germany: soil frost dynamics and snow cover trends, and ecological implications (Kreyling & Henry, 2011)
Sensitivity of natural vegetation to climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean area (Anav & Mariotti, 2011)
Climate information requirements for community-level risk management and adaptation (Srinivasan et al. 2011)
Climate Data Management Systems: status of implementation in developing countries (Stuber et al. 2011)
Towards an enhanced climate system monitoring: challenges and perspectives (Peterson & Baddour, 2011)
Data rescue initiatives: bringing historical climate data into the 21st century (Brunet & Jones, 2011)
Building sustainable regional climate information systems (Martínez Güingla, 2011)
Long-range forecasting and the Global Framework for Climate Services (Graham et al. 2011)
Professional development for providers of seasonal climate prediction (Lamb et al. 2011)
Effects of climate change on water resources in China (Wang & Zhang, 2011)
Provision of climate information for adaptation to climate change (Lu, 2011)
Climate science in support of sustainable agriculture and food security (Selvaraju et al. 2011)
Climate services to support sustainable tourism and adaptation to climate change (Scott et al. 2011)
Changes in precipitation with climate change (Trenberth, 2011)
Bridging the gap between climate scientists and decision makers (Griggs & Kestin, 2011)
Framework for climate services in developing countries (Semazzi, 2011)
Temperature reconstruction (1750-2008) from Dahurian larch tree-rings in an area subject to permafrost in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China (Zhang et al. 2011)
Viticulture in southwest Germany under climate change conditions (Neumann & Matzarakis, 2011)
Performance of Regional Climate Model RegCM3 over Thailand (Octaviani & Manomaiphiboon, 2011)
Stochastic modeling of hot weather spells and their characteristics (Khaliq et al. 2011)
Migration, moult and climate change in barn swallows Hirundo rustica in South Africa (Møller et al. 2011)
Summer mean temperature variation from 1710–2005 inferred from tree-ring data of the Baimang Snow Mountains, northwestern Yunnan, China (Li et al. 2011)
Climate change impacts on growth and carbon ­balance of forests in Central Europe (Hlásny et al. 2011)
Current global warming appears anomalous in relation to the climate of the last 20000 years (Björck, 2011)
Late-glacial and Holocene palaeoenvironments in the Baltic Sea based on a sedimentary record from the Gdansk Basin (Grigoriev et al. 2011)
Precipitation changes on the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea (1954–2003) due to changes in intensity of westerlies over Europe (Świątek, 2011)
Climate-related changes in marine ecosystems simulated with a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic Sea (Meier et al. 2011)
Climate change impacts on river runoff in Latvia (Apsīte et al. 2011)
The development of seasonal structural fronts in the Baltic Sea after winters of varying severity (Demchenko et al. 2011)
Convergence of relative pollution levels among the countries of the Baltic Sea region (Batóg & Batóg, 2011)
Coastal erosion caused by the heavy storm surge of November 2004 in the southern Baltic Sea (Łabuz & Kowalewska-Kalkowska, 2011)
The state of climate in NW Iberia (Gómez-Gesteira et al. 2011)
Validation of the ENSEMBLES global climate ­models over southwestern Europe using probability density functions, from a downscaling perspective (Brands et al. 2011)
Statistical downscaling of daily temperatures in the NW Iberian Peninsula from global climate models: validation and future scenarios (Brands et al. 2011)
Evolution of extreme temperatures over Portugal: recent changes and future scenarios (Ramos et al. 2011)
Characterization of the atmospheric component of the winter hydrological cycle in the Galicia/North Portugal Euro-region: a Lagrangian approach (Drumond et al. 2011)
Effects of warming processes on droughts and water resources in the NW Iberian ­Peninsula (1930−2006) (Vicente-Serrano et al. 2011)
Upwelling along the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula: dependence of trends on fitting strategy (Santos et al. 2011)
Thermohaline measurements in the continental shelf zone of the NW Iberian Peninsula, 1994-2006 (Gago et al. 2011)
Evolution of upwelling systems coupled to the long-term variability in sea surface temperature and Ekman transport (Pardo et al. 2011)
Palaeoclimatic changes in the NW Iberian ­Peninsula during the last 3000 years inferred from ­diagenetic ­proxies in the Ría de Muros sedimentary record (Andrade et al. 2011)
Climate of the last millennium at the southern pole of the North Atlantic Oscillation: an inner-shelf sediment record of flooding and upwelling (Abrantes et al. 2011)
Recent trends in airborne pollen for tree species in Galicia, NW Spain (Rodríguez-Rajo et al. 2011)
Decadal variability in chlorophyll and primary ­production off NW Spain (Bode et al. 2011)
Climate change impacts on coastal and pelagic environments in the southeastern Bay of Biscay (Chust et al. 2011)
Effects of heat waves on human mortality, Galicia, Spain (deCastro et al. 2011)
Climate change, energy and social preferences on policies: exploratory evidence for Spain (Hanemann et al. 2011)
Modelling past and future wine production in the Portuguese Douro Valley (Gouveia et al. 2011)
Future climate and changes in flow patterns in Czech headwater catchments (Benčoková et al. 2012)
Covariability between tree-ring-based precipitation reconstructions in Northwest China and the sea-surface temperature of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Fang et al. 2012)
Precipitation isotope characteristics and climatic controls at a continental and an island site in ­Northeast Asia (Liu et al. 2012)
Floristic mapping data as a proxy for the mean urban heat island (Bechtel & Schmidt, 2012)
Using life-history traits to explain bird population responses to changing weather variability (Cormont et al. 2012)
Changes in climate indices for Serbia according to the SRES-A1B and SRES-A2 scenarios (Kržič et al. 2012)
Extreme climatic events over Vietnam from ­observational data and RegCM3 projections (Ho et al. 2012)
Effects of extreme spring temperatures on urban phenology and pollen production: a case study in Munich and Ingolstadt (Jochner et al. 2012)
Comparison of hot and cold spell effects on ­cardiovascular mortality in individual population groups in the Czech Republic (Kyselý et al. 2012)
Climate change and the long-term northward shift in the African wintering range of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica (Ambrosini et al. 2012)
Varying temporal and spatial effects of climate on maize and soybean affect yield prediction (Sakurai et al. 2012)
Changes in summer monsoon rainfall in the Upper Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand (Singhrattna & Singh Babel, 2012)
Evaluating global climate models for the Pacific island region (Irving et al. 2012)
Historical perspective of drought response in central-southern Italy (Diodato & Bellocchi, 2012)
Maternal effects and changing phenology of bird migration (Møller et al. 2012)
Climate change and crop adaptation in Spain: ­consistency of regional climate models (Garrido et al. 2012)
Predicting forest cover changes in future climate using hydrological and thermal indices in South Korea (Choi et al. 2012)
Detection of recent climate change using daily ­temperature extremes in Khorasan Province, Iran (Sanjani et al. 2012)
Effects of climate change on Mediterranean marine ecosystems: the case of the Catalan Sea (Calvo et al. 2012)
Tourist weather preferences in Europe’s Arctic (Steen Jacobsen et al. 2012)
Higher degree-days at the time of breeding predict size of second clutches in the barn swallow (Ambrosini et al. 2012)
Effects of climate change on ozone and ­particulate matter over Central and Eastern Europe (Huszar et al. 2012)
Changes in the phenology and composition of wine from Franconia, Germany (Bock et al. 2012)
Effects of climate variability and change on Chinese agriculture: a review (Li et al. 2012)
Change in climatic extremes over mainland China based on an integrated extreme climate index (Ren et al. 2012)
Change in extreme temperature event frequency over mainland China, 1961−2008 (Zhou & Ren, 2012)
Characteristics of extreme droughts inferred from tree-ring data in the Qilian Mountains, 1700−2005 (Zhang et al. 2012)
Historical analogues of the 2008 extreme snow event over Central and Southern China (Hao et al. 2012)
Circulation patterns of regional mean daily ­precipitation extremes over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the boreal summer (Guan et al. 2012)
Linkage between the Arctic Oscillation and winter extreme precipitation over central-southern China (Mao et al. 2012)
Inhomogeneous distributions of Meiyu rainfall in the Jiang-Huai basin, and associated circulation patterns (Wang et al. 2012)
Sources of moisture for China and their variations during drier and ­wetter conditions in 2000−2004: a Lagrangian approach (Drumond et al. 2012)
Changes in precipitation extremes over Eastern China simulated by the Beijing Climate Center ­Climate System Model (BCC_CSM1.0) (Zhang et al. 2012)
Risk assessment of agricultural drought using the CERES-Wheat model: a case study of Henan Plain, China (Zhao et al. 2012)
Effect of a deciduous shrub on microclimate along an elevation gradient, Mount Koma, northern Japan (Tsuyuzaki et al. 2012)
Statistical crop models: predicting the effects of temperature and precipitation changes (Holzkämper et al. 2012)
Alternative model for precipitation probability ­distribution: application to Spain (Moncho et al. 2012)
CMIP3 ensemble climate projections over the ­western tropical Pacific based on model skill (Perkins et al. 2012)
Interactive coupling of a regional climate model and a chemical transport model: evaluation and preliminary results on ozone and aerosol feedback (Huszar et al. 2012)
Macroclimate and viticultural zoning in Europe: observed trends and atmospheric forcing (Santos et al. 2012)
European drought regimes under mitigated and unmitigated climate change: application of the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS) (Warren et al. 2012)
Influence of atmospheric modes of variability on a deep lake south of the Alps (Salmaso, 2012)
Tourism demand and atmospheric parameters: non-intrusive observation techniques (Gómez-Martín et al. 2012)
Rio Grande and Rio Conchos water supply variability over the past 500 years (Woodhouse et al. 2012)
Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer (Scott et al. 2012)
Climate change scenarios and potential impacts on water availability in northern Mexico (Magaña et al. 2012)
Downscaling of weather generator parameters to quantify hydrological impacts of climate change (Chen et al. 2012)
Improvements over three generations of climate model simulations for eastern India (Das et al. 2012)
Climate sensitivity of a millennium-long pine chronology from Albania (Seim et al. 2012)
Modeling the sensitivity of outdoor recreation activities to climate change (Finger & Lehmann, 2012)
Effect of sea level extremes on the western Basque coast during the 21st century (Marcos et al. 2012)
Re-evaluating the margin of the South Australian grain belt in a changing climate (Nidumolu et al. 2012)
RegCM4: model description and preliminary tests over multiple CORDEX domains (Giorgi et al. 2012)
Sensitivity of seasonal climate and diurnal ­precipitation over Central America to land and sea surface schemes in RegCM4 (Diro et al. 2012)
Dynamical downscaling of rainfall and temperature over the Arabian Peninsula using RegCM4 (Almazroui, 2012)
Simulation of temperature and precipitation ­climatology for the Central Asia CORDEX domain using RegCM 4.0 (Ozturk et al. 2012)
Effects of land use changes on climate in the Greater Horn of Africa (Otieno & Anyah, 2012)
Radiative and climatic effects of dust over West Africa, as simulated by a regional climate model (Solmon et al. 2012)
RegT-Band: a tropical band version of RegCM4 (Coppola et al. 2012)
Effects of seasonal cycle fluctuations in an A1B ­scenario over the Euro-Mediterranean region (Dell’Aquila et al. 2012)
Effects of coastal topography on climate: high-resolution simulation with a regional climate model (Önol, 2012)
Projecting climate change, drought conditions and crop productivity in Turkey (Sen et al. 2012)
Large-scale origins of rainfall and temperature bias in high-resolution simulations over southern Africa (Sylla et al. 2012)
Uncertainties in monsoon precipitation projections over China: results from two high-resolution RCM simulations (Gao et al. 2012)
Near-future climate change over Europe with focus on Croatia in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations (Branković et al. 2012)
Effects of RegCM3 parameterizations on simulated rainy season over South America (da Rocha et al. 2012)
Regional climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over Europe using RegCM3 (Zanis et al. 2012)
Atmospheric circulation change in the central Himalayas indicated by a high-resolution ice core deuterium excess record (Pang et al. 2012)
Reducing overdispersion in stochastic weather generators using a generalized linear modeling approach (Kim et al. 2012)
Annual regional precipitation variations from a 700 year tree-ring record in south Tibet, western China (Liu et al. 2012)
Simulating the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation on frost injury in winter wheat (Persson et al. 2012)
Infield grass production at northern latitudes: farmers’ adaptations to climate change (Mysterud et al. 2012)
Legacies of pre-industrial land use can bias modern tree-ring climate calibrations (Gunnarson et al. 2012)
Effect of climate on malarial vector distribution in Monsoon Asia: coupled model for Ecophysiological and Climatological Distribution of mosquito generations (ECD-mg) (Ohta & Kaga, 2012)
Change in climate and berry composition for grapevine varieties cultivated in the Loire Valley (Neethling et al. 2012)
Hydro-economic consequences of climate change in the upper Rio Grande (Hurd & Coonrod, 2012)
Lepidopteran species differ in susceptibility to winter warming (Williams et al. 2012)
Unexpected long-term changes in chromosome inversion frequencies in a Neotropical Drosophila species (Batista et al. 2012)
Downscaling future wind hazard for SE London using the UKCP09 regional climate model ensemble (Blenkinsop et al. 2012)
Growth response of Pinus tabulaeformis to climate along an elevation gradient in the eastern Qinling Mountains, central China (Shi et al. 2012)
Migration phenology of beluga whales in a changing Arctic (Bailleul et al. 2012)
Modelling the effects of climate change on air quality over Central and Eastern Europe: concept, evaluation and projections (Juda-Rezler et al. 2012)
Wintertime circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula: long-term variability and relationships with weather extremes (Fernández-Montes et al. 2012)
Projected changes of temperature and precipitation in Texas from downscaled global climate models (Jiang & Yang, 2012)
Surviving in a warmer world: environmental and genetic responses (Donnelly et al. 2012)
Effects of sample size in dendroclimatology (Büntgen et al. 2012)

Posted in Climate science | Leave a Comment »

New research – atmospheric and oceanic circulation (August 10, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 10, 2016

Some of the latest papers on atmospheric and oceanic circulation are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


The North Atlantic Oscillation as a driver of rapid climate change in the Northern Hemisphere (Delworth et al. 2016)

Abstract: Pronounced climate changes have occurred since the 1970s, including rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, large-scale warming and increased tropical storm activity in the Atlantic. Anthropogenic radiative forcing is likely to have played a major role in these changes, but the relative influence of anthropogenic forcing and natural variability is not well established. The above changes have also occurred during a period in which the North Atlantic Oscillation has shown marked multidecadal variations. Here we investigate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in these rapid changes through its influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and ocean heat transport. We use climate models to show that observed multidecadal variations of the North Atlantic Oscillation can induce multidecadal variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and poleward ocean heat transport in the Atlantic, extending to the Arctic. Our results suggest that these variations have contributed to the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, Northern Hemisphere warming, and changing Atlantic tropical storm activity, especially in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These multidecadal variations are superimposed on long-term anthropogenic forcing trends that are the dominant factor in long-term Arctic sea ice loss and hemispheric warming.

Evidence of global warming impact on the evolution of the Hadley Circulation in ECMWF centennial reanalyses (D’Agostino & Lionello, 2016)

Abstract: This study analyzes the evolution of the Hadley Circulation (HC) during the twentieth century in ERA-20CM (AMIP-experiment) and ERA-20C (reanalysis). These two recent ECMWF products provide the opportunity for a new analysis of the HC trends and of their uncertainties. Further, the effect of sea surface temperature forcing (including its uncertainty) and data assimilation are investigated. Also the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim, for the period 1979–2010, is considered for a complementary analysis. Datasets present important differences in characteristics and trends of the HC. In ERA-20C HC is weaker (especially the Southern Hemisphere HC) and the whole Northern Hemisphere HC is located more southward than in ERA-20CM (especially in the boreal summer). In ERA-Interim HC is stronger and wider than both other simulations. In general, the magnitude of trends is larger and more statistically significant in ERA-20C than in ERA-20CM. The presence of large multidecadal variability across twentieth century raises doubts on the interpretation of recent behavior, such as the onset of sustained long term trends, particularly for the HC strength. In spite of this, the southward shift of the Southern Edge and widening of the Southern Hemisphere HC appear robust features in all datasets, and their trends have accelerated in the last three decades, but actual expansion rates remain affected by considerable uncertainty. Inconsistencies between datasets are attributed to the different reproduction of the links between the HC width and factors affecting it (such as mean global temperature, tropopause height, meridional temperature contrast and planetary waves), which appear more robust in ERA-20CM than in ERA-20C, particularly for the two latter factors. Further, in ERA-Interim these correlations are not statistically significant. These outcomes suggest that data assimilation degrades the links between the HC and features influencing its dynamics.

Impact of slowdown of Atlantic overturning circulation on heat and freshwater transports (Kelly et al. 2016)

Abstract: Recent measurements of the strength of the Atlantic overturning circulation at 26°N show a 1 year drop and partial recovery amid a gradual weakening. To examine the extent and impact of the slowdown on basin wide heat and freshwater transports for 2004–2012, a box model that assimilates hydrographic and satellite observations is used to estimate heat transport and freshwater convergence as residuals of the heat and freshwater budgets. Using an independent transport estimate, convergences are converted to transports, which show a high level of spatial coherence. The similarity between Atlantic heat transport and the Agulhas Leakage suggests that it is the source of the surface heat transport anomalies. The freshwater budget in the North Atlantic is dominated by a decrease in freshwater flux. The increasing salinity during the slowdown supports modeling studies that show that heat, not freshwater, drives trends in the overturning circulation in a warming climate.

The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change (Kennedy et al. 2016)

Abstract: Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

The anomalous change in the QBO in 2015-16 (Newman et al. 2016)

Abstract: The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is a tropical lower stratospheric, downward propagating zonal wind variation, with an average period of ~28 months. The QBO has been constantly documented since 1953. Here we describe the evolution of the QBO during the Northern Hemisphere winter of 2015-16 using radiosonde observations and meteorological reanalyses. Normally, the QBO would show a steady downward propagation of the westerly phase. In 2015-16, there was an anomalous upward displacement of this westerly phase from ~30 hPa to 15 hPa. These westerlies impinge on, or “cut-off” the normal downward propagation of the easterly phase. In addition, easterly winds develop at 40 hPa. Comparisons to tropical wind statistics for the 1953-present record demonstrate that this 2015-16 QBO disruption is unprecedented.

Other papers

Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: a linear baroclinic response to surface heating (Ghosh et al. 2016)

Gridded, monthly rainfall and temperature climatology for El Niño Southern Oscillation impacts in the United States (Dourte et al. 2016)

Southern European rainfall reshapes the early-summer circumglobal teleconnection after the late 1970s (Lin et al. 2016)

Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects (Garcia et al. 2016)

The Relative Influence of ENSO and SAM on Antarctic Peninsula Climate (Clem et al. 2016)

Sinuosity of mid-latitude atmospheric flow in a warming world (Cattiaux et al. 2016)

ENSO response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere: The role of the initial conditions (Pausata et al. 2016)

Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation variability (Lopez et al. 2016)

Robust response of the Amundsen Sea Low to stratospheric ozone depletion (England et al. 2016)

The response of winter Pacific North American pattern to strong volcanic eruptions (Liu et al. 2016)

Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in a model with an improved North Atlantic Current (Drews & Greatbatch, 2016)

Sub-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation variability in observations and the Kiel Climate Model (Reintges, Latif & Park, 2016)

Is there a robust effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the Southern Annular Mode? (Steptoe et al. 2016)

Climate Signals in the Mid- to High-Latitude North Atlantic from Altimeter Observations (Li et al. 2016)

Intensification and poleward shift of subtropical western boundary currents in a warming climate (Yang et al. 2016)

Inter-basin effects of the Indian Ocean on Pacific decadal climate change (Mochizuki et al. 2016)

The influence of boreal spring Arctic Oscillation on the subsequent winter ENSO in CMIP5 models (Chen et al. 2016)

Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation (Yu et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate claims, Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – carbon cycle (August 9, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 9, 2016

Some of the latest papers on carbon cycle are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Sources of uncertainty in future projections of the carbon cycle (Hewitt et al. 2016)

Abstract: The inclusion of carbon cycle processes within CMIP5 Earth System Models provides the opportunity to explore the relative importance of differences in scenario and climate model representation to future land and ocean carbon fluxes. A two-way ANOVA approach was used to quantify the variability owing to differences between scenarios and between climate models at different lead times.

For global ocean carbon fluxes, the variance attributed to differences between Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios exceeds the variance attributed to differences between climate models by around 2025, completely dominating by 2100. This contrasts with global land carbon fluxes, where the variance attributed to differences between climate models continues to dominate beyond 2100. This suggests that modelled processes that determine ocean fluxes are currently better constrained than those of land fluxes, thus we can be more confident in linking different future socio-economic pathways to consequences of ocean carbon uptake than for land carbon uptake. The contribution of internal variance is negligible for ocean fluxes and small for land fluxes, indicating that there is little dependence on the initial conditions.

The apparent agreement in atmosphere-ocean carbon fluxes, globally, masks strong climate model differences at a regional level. The North Atlantic and Southern Ocean are key regions, where differences in modelled processes represent an important source of variability in projected regional fluxes.

Rapid carbon loss and slow recovery following permafrost thaw in boreal peatlands (Jones et al. 2016)

Abstract: Permafrost peatlands store one-third of the total carbon (C) in the atmosphere and are increasingly vulnerable to thaw as high latitude temperatures warm. Large uncertainties remain about C dynamics following permafrost thaw in boreal peatlands. We used a chronosequence approach to measure C stocks in forested permafrost plateaus (forest) and thawed permafrost bogs, ranging in thaw age from young (100 years) in two Interior Alaska chronosequences. Permafrost originally aggraded simultaneously with peat accumulation (syngenetic permafrost) at both sites. We found that upon thaw, C loss of the forest peat C is equivalent to ~30% of the initial forest C stock and is directly proportional to the pre-thaw C stocks. Our model results indicate that permafrost thaw turned these peatlands into net C sources to the atmosphere for a decade following thaw, after which post-thaw bog peat accumulation returned sites to net C sinks. It can take multiple centuries to millennia for a site to recover its pre-thaw C stocks; the amount of time needed for them to regain their pre-thaw C stocks is governed by the amount of C that accumulated prior to thaw. Consequently, these findings show that older peatlands will take longer to recover pre-thaw C stocks, whereas younger peatlands will exceed pre-thaw stocks in a matter of centuries. We conclude that the loss of sporadic and discontinuous permafrost by 2100 could result in a loss of up to 24 Pg of deep C from permafrost peatlands.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi slow soil carbon cycling (Averill & Hawkes, 2016)

Abstract: Respiration of soil organic carbon is one of the largest fluxes of CO2 on earth. Understanding the processes that regulate soil respiration is critical for predicting future climate. Recent work has suggested that soil carbon respiration may be reduced by competition for nitrogen between symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with plant roots and free-living microbial decomposers, which is consistent with increased soil carbon storage in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems globally. However, experimental tests of the mycorrhizal competition hypothesis are lacking. Here we show that ectomycorrhizal roots and hyphae decrease soil carbon respiration rates by up to 67% under field conditions in two separate field exclusion experiments, and this likely occurs via competition for soil nitrogen, an effect larger than 2 °C soil warming. These findings support mycorrhizal competition for nitrogen as an independent driver of soil carbon balance and demonstrate the need to understand microbial community interactions to predict ecosystem feedbacks to global climate.

Brazil’s Amazonian forest carbon: the key to Southern Amazonia’s significance for global climate (Fearnside, 2016)

Abstract: Southern Amazonia is the first region of Brazil’s Amazon area to be exposed to intensive conversion to agriculture and ranching. This conversion emits greenhouse gases from the carbon stock in the biomass and soils of the previous vegetation. Quantifying these carbon stocks is the first step in quantifying the impact on global warming from this conversion. This review is limited to information on Brazilian Amazonia’s carbon stocks. It indicates large amounts of carbon at risk of emission in both biomass and soils, as well as considerable uncertainty in estimates. Reducing uncertainty is a priority for research but the existence of uncertainty must not be used as an excuse for delaying measures to contain deforestation. The magnitude of carbon stocks is proportional to greenhouse gas emissions per hectare of deforestation and consequently to impact on global climate.

Long-term drainage reduces CO2 uptake and increases CO2 emission on a Siberian floodplain due to shifts in vegetation community and soil thermal characteristics (Kwon et al. 2016)

Abstract: With increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns forecast for the Arctic over the coming decades, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost is expected to increasingly alter hydrological conditions by creating mosaics of wetter and drier areas. The objective of this study is to investigate how 10 years of lowered water table depths of wet floodplain ecosystems would affect CO2 fluxes measured using a closed chamber system, focusing on the role of long-term changes in soil thermal characteristics and vegetation community structure. Drainage diminishes the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of organic soil, leading to warmer soil temperatures in shallow layers during the daytime and colder soil temperatures in deeper layers, resulting in a reduction in thaw depths. These soil temperature changes can intensify growing-season heterotrophic respiration by up to 95 %. With decreased autotrophic respiration due to reduced gross primary production under these dry conditions, the differences in ecosystem respiration rates in the present study were 25 %. We also found that a decade-long drainage installation significantly increased shrub abundance, while decreasing Eriophorum angustifolium abundance resulted in Carex sp. dominance. These two changes had opposing influences on gross primary production during the growing season: while the increased abundance of shrubs slightly increased gross primary production, the replacement of E. angustifolium by Carex sp. significantly decreased it. With the effects of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production combined, net CO2 uptake rates varied between the two years, which can be attributed to Carex-dominated plots’ sensitivity to climate. However, underlying processes showed consistent patterns: 10 years of drainage increased soil temperatures in shallow layers and replaced E. angustifolium by Carex sp., which increased CO2 emission and reduced CO2 uptake rates. During the non-growing season, drainage resulted in 4 times more CO2 emissions, with high sporadic fluxes; these fluxes were induced by soil temperatures, E. angustifolium abundance, and air pressure.

Other papers

Quantifying Peat Carbon Accumulation in Alaska Using a Process-Based Biogeochemistry Model (Wang et al. 2016)

Patterns of carbon processing at the seafloor: the role of faunal and microbial communities in moderating carbon flows (Woulds et al. 2016)

Informing climate models with rapid chamber measurements of forest carbon uptake (Metcalfe et al. 2016)

Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems (Shao et al. 2016)

Decadal and long-term boreal soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration rates across a variety of ecosystems (Manies et al. 2016)

Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000–2005 in the tropics (Roman-Cuesta et al. 2016)

Large net CO2 loss from a grass-dominated tropical savanna in south-central Brazil in response to seasonal and interannual drought (De Arruda et al. 2016)

How much CO2 is taken up by the European terrestrial biosphere? (Reuter et al. 2016)

Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon (Bourgeois et al. 2016)

Drivers of atmospheric methane uptake by montane forest soils in the southern Peruvian Andes (Jones et al. 2016)

Persistent high temperature and low precipitation reduce peat carbon accumulation (Delarue, 2016)

Methane oxidation in contrasting soil types: responses to experimental warming with implication for landscape-integrated CH4 budget (D’Imperio et al. 2016)

Seeing the forest not for the carbon: why concentrating on land-use-induced carbon stock changes of soils in Brazil can be climate-unfriendly (Boy et al. 2016)

Stability of grassland soil C and N pools despite 25 years of an extreme climatic and disturbance regime (Wilcox et al. 2016)

Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009 (Calle et al. 2016)

Carbon cycle responses of semi-arid ecosystems to positive asymmetry in rainfall (Haverd et al. 2016)

Impact of increasing inflow of warm Atlantic water on the sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide and methane in the Laptev Sea (Wåhlström et al. 2016)

Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone (Butterworth & Miller, 2016)

Earlier snowmelt reduces atmospheric carbon uptake in mid-latitude subalpine forests (Winchell et al. 2016)

Four decades of modeling methane cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (Xu et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – Climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks (August 8, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 8, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


The Spectral Signature of Recent Climate Change (Brindley & Bantges, 2016)

Abstract: Spectrally resolved measurements of the Earth’s reflected shortwave (RSW) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere intrinsically contain the imprints of a multitude of climate relevant parameters. Here, we review the progress made in directly using such observations to diagnose and attribute change within the Earth system over the past four decades. We show how changes associated with perturbations such as increasing greenhouse gases are expected to be manifested across the spectrum and illustrate the enhanced discriminatory power that spectral resolution provides over broadband radiation measurements. Advances in formal detection and attribution techniques and in the design of climate model evaluation exercises employing spectrally resolved data are highlighted. We illustrate how spectral observations have been used to provide insight into key climate feedback processes and quantify multi-year variability but also indicate potential barriers to further progress. Suggestions for future research priorities in this area are provided.

Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming (Shaffer et al. 2016)

Abstract: Future global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our warming world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global warming event 55.8 Ma ago, a possible future warming analogue. We obtain constrained estimates of CO2 and climate sensitivity before and during the PETM and of the PETM carbon input amount and nature. Sensitivity increased from 3.3–5.6 to 3.7–6.5 K (Kelvin) into the PETM. When taken together with Last Glacial Maximum and modern estimates, this result indicates climate sensitivity increase with global warming.

Insights into Earth’s energy imbalance from multiple sources (Trenberth et al. 2016)

Abstract: The current Earth’s energy imbalance (EEI) can best be estimated from changes in ocean heat content (OHC), complemented by top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation measurements and an assessment of the small non-ocean components. Sustained observations from the Argo array of autonomous profiling floats enable near-global estimates of OHC since 2005, which reveal considerable cancellation of variations in the upper 300 m. An analysis of the monthly contributions to EEI from non-ocean (land and ice) using the CESM Large Ensemble reveals standard deviations of 0.3 to 0.4 W m-2 (global); largest values occur in August, but values are below 0.75 W m-2 >95% of the time. Global standard deviations of EEI of 0.64 W m-2 based on top-of-atmosphere observations therefore substantially constrain ocean contributions, given by the tendencies of OHC. Instead, monthly standard deviations of many Argo-based OHC tendencies are 6 to 13 W m-2 and non-physical fluctuations are clearly evident. We show that an ocean reanalysis with multi-variate dynamical data assimilation features much better agreement with TOA radiation, and 44% of the vertically-integrated short-term OHC trend for 2005-14 of 0.8±0.2 W m-2 (globally) occurs below 700 m depth. Largest warming occurs from 20 to 50°S, especially over the Southern Oceans, and near 40°N, in all ocean analyses. The EEI is estimated to be 0.9±0.3 W m-2 for 2005-2014.

Assessing the Radiative Effects of Global Ice Clouds Based on CloudSat and CALIPSO Measurements (Hong et al. 2016)

Abstract: Although it is well-established that cirrus warms the Earth, the radiative effect of the entire spectrum of ice clouds is not well understood. In this study, the role of all ice clouds in the Earth’s radiation budget is investigated by performing radiative transfer modeling using ice cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO measurements as inputs. Results show that, for the 2008 period, the warming effect (~21.8 ± 5.4 W m-2) induced by ice clouds due to trapping longwave radiation exceeds their cooling effect (~-16.7 ± 1.7 W m-2) caused by shortwave reflection, resulting in a net warming effect (~5.1 ± 3.8 W m-2) globally on the earth-atmosphere system. The net warming is over 15 W m-2 in the tropical deep convective regions, whereas cooling occurs in the midlatitudes, which is less than 10 W m-2 in magnitude. Seasonal variations of ice cloud radiative effects are evident in the midlatitudes where the net effect changes from warming during winter to cooling during summer, whereas warming occurs all year round in the tropics. Ice cloud optical depth (τ) is shown to be an important factor in determining the sign and magnitude of the net radiative effect. Ice clouds with τ < 4.6 display a warming effect with the largest contributions from those with τ ~ 1.0. In addition, ice clouds cause vertically differential heating and cooling of the atmosphere, particularly with strong heating in the upper troposphere over the tropics. At Earth’s surface, ice clouds produce a cooling effect no matter how small the τ value is.

Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic warming (Lovejoy et al. 2016)

Abstract: Explanations for the industrial epoch warming are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic warming (AW) and Giant Natural Fluctuations (GNF’s). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNF’s. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan’s objective was to criticize the IPCC’s trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈ 1000 years. The GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.

Other papers

Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations (Terai et al. 2016)

Assessing the Radiative Effects of Global Ice Clouds Based on CloudSat and CALIPSO Measurements (Hong et al. 2016)

Which way will the circulation shift in a changing climate? Possible nonlinearity of extratropical cloud feedbacks (Tandon & Cane, 2016)

Regional and global temperature response to anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China in three climate models (Kasoar et al. 2016)

Effective radiative forcing from historical land use change (Andrews et al. 2016)

Reassessing properties and radiative forcing of contrail cirrus using a climate model (Bock & Burkhardt, 2016)

Could the Pliocene constrain the equilibrium climate sensitivity? (Hargreaves & Annan, 2016)

Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model (Yu et al. 2016)

A sensitivity study of the impact of dynamic vegetation on simulated future climate change over Southern Europe and the Mediterranean (Alo & Anagnostou, 2016)

A satellite-based 13-year climatology of net cloud radiative forcing over the Indian monsoon region (Saud et al. 2016)

Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: theory and application to the European summer climate (Kröner et al. 2016)

Early global radiation measurements: a review (Stanhill & Archiman, 2016)

Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia (Bhawar et al. 2016)

Solar irradiance observed at Summit, Greenland: Possible links to magnetic activity on short timescales (Frederick, 2016)

Limits to global and Australian temperature change this century based on expert judgment of climate sensitivity (Grose et al. 2016)

Indirect Forcing of Black carbon on Clouds over North East India (Panicker et al. 2016)

Contrasting radiation and soil heat fluxes in Arctic shrub and wet sedge tundra (Juszak et al. 2016)

Aerosol radiative effects under clear skies over Europe and their changes in the period of 2001–2012 (Bartók, 2016)

Review of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: Mechanisms, Significance and Challenges (Fan et al. 2016)

Inference of Climate Sensitivity from Analysis of Earth’s Energy Budget (Forster, 2016)

Impact of absorbing aerosol deposition on snow albedo reduction over the southern Tibetan plateau based on satellite observations (Lee et al. 2016)

Spatiotemporal characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in recent 54 years from measurements and reconstructions over the Tibetan Plateau (Liu et al. 2016)

The whole-atmosphere response to changes in the Earth’s magnetic field from 1900 to 2000: an example of “top-down” vertical coupling (Cnossen et al. 2016)

Strong modification of stratospheric ozone forcing by cloud and sea-ice adjustments (Xia et al. 2016)

Evaluation of the Arctic surface radiation budget in CMIP5 models (Boeke & Taylor, 2016)

Climate Feedback Variance and the Interaction of Aerosol Forcing and Feedbacks (Gettelman et al. 2016)

Posted in AGW evidence, Climate claims, Climate science | Leave a Comment »

New research – past climate (August 4, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 4, 2016

Some of the latest papers on past climate are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Reconstructing Earth’s surface temperature over the past 2000 years: the science behind the headlines (Smerdon & Pollack, 2016)

Abstract: The last quarter century spans the publication of the first assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1990 and the latest report published in 2013–2014. The five assessment reports appearing over that interval reveal a marked increase in the number of paleoclimate studies addressing the climate of the last 2000 years (the Common Era). An important focus of this work has been on reconstruction of hemispheric and global temperatures. Several early studies in this area generated considerable scientific and public interest, and were followed by high-profile and sometimes vitriolic debates about the magnitude of temperature changes over all or part of the Common Era and their comparison to 20th- and 21st-century global temperature increases due to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Behind the more public debates, however, several consistent themes of scientific inquiry have developed to better characterize climate variability and change over the Common Era. These include attempts to collect more climate proxy archives and understand the signals they contain, improve the statistical methods used to estimate past temperature variability from proxies and their associated uncertainties, and to compare reconstructed temperature variability and change with climate model simulations. All of these efforts are driving a new age of research on the climate of the Common Era that is developing more cohesive and collaborative investigations into the dynamics of climate on time scales of decades to centuries, and an understanding of the implications for modeled climate projections of the future.

Flat meridional temperature gradient in the early Eocene in the subsurface rather than surface ocean (Ho & Laepple, 2016)

Abstract: The early Eocene (49–55 million years ago) is a time interval characterized by elevated surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2, and a flatter-than-present latitudinal surface temperature gradient. The multi-proxy-derived flat temperature gradient has been a challenge to reproduce in model simulations, especially the subtropical warmth at the high-latitude surface oceans, inferred from the archaeal lipid-based palaeothermometry, TEXH86. Here we revisit the TEXH86 interpretation by analysing a global collection of multi-proxy temperature estimates from sediment cores spanning millennia to millions of years. Comparing the variability between proxy types, we demonstrate that the present TEXH86 interpretation overestimates the magnitude of past climate changes on all timescales. We attribute this to an inappropriate calibration, which reflects subsurface ocean but is calibrated to the sea surface, where the latitudinal temperature gradient is steeper. Recalibrating the proxy to the temperatures of subsurface ocean, where the signal is probably formed, yields colder TEXH86 -temperatures and latitudinal gradient consistent with standard climate model simulations of the Eocene climate, invalidating the apparent, extremely warm polar sea surface temperatures. We conclude that there is a need to reinterpret TEXH86 -inferred marine temperature records in the literature, especially for reconstructions of past warm climates that rely heavily on this proxy as reflecting subsurface ocean.

The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (Coats et al. 2016)

Abstract: The five most severe and persistent droughts in the American West (AW) during the Common Era occurred during a 450 year period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA—850–1299 C.E.). Herein we use timeseries modeling to estimate the probability of such a period of hydroclimate change occurring. Clustering of severe and persistent drought during an MCA-length period occurs in approximately 10% of surrogate timeseries that were constructed to have the same characteristics as a tree-ring derived estimate of AW hydroclimate variability between 850 and 2005 C.E. Periods of hydroclimate change like the MCA are thus expected to occur in the AW, although not frequently, with a recurrence interval of approximately 11 000 years. Importantly, a shift in mean hydroclimate conditions during the MCA is found to be necessary for drought to reach the severity and persistence of the actual MCA megadroughts. This result has consequences for our understanding of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics underlying the MCA and a persistently warm Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is suggested to have played an important role in causing megadrought clustering during this period.

Reconstruction of early Holocene Thermal Maximum temperatures using present vertical distribution of conifers in the Pannon region (SE Central Europe) (Molnár & Végvári, 2016)

Abstract: Palaeoclimatic reconstruction is a main subject of palaeoecology, clarifying fossil palaeoenvironmental patterns. Our study provides a macroecological approach to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) of the Pannon region at the early Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, warmest period of the Holocene), based on the absence of forest-dwelling conifers in the North Hungarian Mountains and their presence in the surrounding Carpathians on the same altitude. We suppose that the HTM was enough warm to drive conifers to extinction from elevations between 900 and 1100 m a.s.l. in the relatively isolated N-Hungarian Mts. Conversely, HTM still allowed the survival of residual dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) stands on the isolated peaks of the West Transylvanian Mountains between 1600 and 1800 m a.s.l. Our study provides an estimate for the value of MAT of HTM of Pannon region with an interval of 0.4°C, relying on macroecological considerations. We calculate the temperature of the HTM 1.3–1.7°C warmer than the present temperature. This method can be used in a general sense, if conditions meet the requirements of the method even in horizontal cases, with area isolates of climate-sensitive species.

Low atmospheric CO2 levels during the Little Ice Age due to cooling-induced terrestrial uptake (Rubino et al. 2016)

Abstract: Low atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the Little Ice Age has been used to derive the global carbon cycle sensitivity to temperature. Recent evidence confirms earlier indications that the low CO2 was caused by increased terrestrial carbon storage. It remains unknown whether the terrestrial biosphere responded to temperature variations, or there was vegetation re-growth on abandoned farmland. Here we present a global numerical simulation of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide concentrations in the pre-industrial period. Carbonyl sulfide concentration is linked to changes in gross primary production and shows a positive anomaly during the Little Ice Age. We show that a decrease in gross primary production and a larger decrease in ecosystem respiration is the most likely explanation for the decrease in atmospheric CO2 and increase in atmospheric carbonyl sulfide concentrations. Therefore, temperature change, not vegetation re-growth, was the main cause of the increased terrestrial carbon storage. We address the inconsistency between ice-core CO2 records from different sites measuring CO2 and δ13CO2 in ice from Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica). Our interpretation allows us to derive the temperature sensitivity of pre-industrial CO2 fluxes for the terrestrial biosphere (γL = −10 to −90 Pg C K−1), implying a positive climate feedback and providing a benchmark to reduce model uncertainties.

Other papers

Destabilization of glacial climate by the radiative impact of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation disruptions (Galbraith et al. 2016)

The role of El Niño in the global energy redistribution: a case study in the mid-Holocene (Saint-Lu et al. 2016)

The last interglacial climate: comparing direct and indirect impacts of insolation changes (Pedersen et al. 2016)

Co-evolution of oceans, climate, and the biosphere during the ‘Ordovician Revolution’: A review (Algeo et al. 2016)

Are Karakoram temperatures out of phase compared to hemispheric trends? (Asad et al. 2016)

Correlation between climate and grain harvest fluctuations and the dynastic transitions and prosperity in China over the past two millennia (Yin et al. 2016)

Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study (Mitsui & Crucifix, 2016)

The influence of Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing on glacial-interglacial changes in the global deep ocean stratification (Sun et al. 2016)

Strong effects of tropical ice-sheet coverage and thickness on the hard snowball Earth bifurcation point (Liu et al. 2016)

Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation (Wassenburg et al. 2016)

An extended and higher-resolution record of climate and land use from stalagmite MC01 from Macal Chasm, Belize, revealing connections between major dry events, overall climate variability, and Maya sociopolitical changes (Akers et al. 2016)

Coexisting responses in tree-ring δ13C to high-latitude climate variability under elevated CO2: A critical examination of climatic effects and systematic discrimination rate changes (Helama et al. 2016)

Strong mid-depth warming and weak radiocarbon imprints in the equatorial Atlantic during Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas (Weldeab et al. 2016)

April–August temperatures in the Czech Lands, 1499–2015, reconstructed from grape-harvest dates (Možný et al. 2016)

North Atlantic summer storm tracks over Europe dominated by internal variability over the past millennium (Gagen et al. 2016)

Extreme storms during the last 6500 years from lagoonal sedimentary archives in the Mar Menor (SE Spain) (Dezileau et al. 2016)

Climatic effects and impacts of the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the Czech Lands (Brázdil et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate science | Leave a Comment »

New research – hydrosphere (August 3, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 3, 2016

Some of the latest papers on hydrosphere (oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, etc.) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Comparison of Global Precipitation Estimates across a Range of Temporal and Spatial Scales (Gehne et al. 2016)

Abstract: Characteristics of precipitation estimates for rate and amount from three global High-resolution precipitation products (HRPPs), four global Climate Data Records (CDRs), and four reanalyses are compared. All data sets considered have at least daily temporal resolution. Estimates of global precipitation differ widely from one product to the next, with some differences likely due to differing goals in producing the estimates. HRPPs are intended to produce the best snapshot of the precipitation estimate locally. CDRs of precipitation emphasize homogeneity over instantaneous accuracy. Precipitation estimates from global reanalyses are dynamically consistent with the large scale circulation but tend to compare poorly to rain gauge estimates since they are forecast by the reanalysis system and precipitation is not assimilated. Regional differences among the estimates in the means and variances are as large as the means and variances, respectively. Even with similar monthly totals, precipitation rates vary significantly among the estimates. Temporal correlations among data sets are large at annual and daily time scales, suggesting that compensating bias errors at annual and random errors at daily time scales dominate the differences. However, the signal to noise ratio at intermediate (monthly) time scales can be large enough to result in high correlations overall. It is shown that differences on annual time scales and continental regions are around 0.8mm/d, which corresponds to 23W m−2. These wide variations in the estimates, even for global averages, highlight the need for better constrained precipitation products in the future.

Stable reconstruction of Arctic sea level for the 1950–2010 period (Svendsen et al. 2016)

Abstract: Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is generally difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of both tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. Here a strategy to achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from 1950 to today is presented. This work is based on the combination of tide gauge records and a new 20-year reprocessed satellite altimetry derived sea level pattern. Hence the study is limited to the area covered by satellite altimetry (68ºN and 82ºN). It is found that timestep cumulative reconstruction as suggested by Church and White (2000) may yield widely variable results and is difficult to stabilize due to the many gaps in both tide gauge and satellite data. A more robust sea level reconstruction approach is to use datum adjustment of the tide gauges in combination with satellite altimetry, as described by (Ray and Douglas, 2011). In this approach, a datum-fit of each tide gauges is used and the method takes into account the entirety of each tide gauge record. This makes the Arctic sea level reconstruction much less prone to drifting.

From our reconstruction, we found that the Arctic mean sea level trend is around 1.5 mm +/- 0.3 mm/y for the period 1950 to 2010, between 68ºN and 82ºN. This value is in good agreement with the global mean trend of 1.8 +/- 0.3 mm/y over the same period as found by Church and White (2004).

Lake Vanda: A sentinel for climate change in the McMurdo Sound Region of Antarctica (Castendyk et al. 2016)

Abstract: Lake Vanda is a perennially ice-covered, meromictic, endorheic lake located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and an exceptional sentinel of climate change within the region. Lake levels rose 15 m over the past 68 years in response to climate-driven variability in ice-cover sublimation, meltwater production, and annual discharge of the Onyx River, the main source of water to the lake. Evidence from a new bathymetric map and water balance model combined with annual growth laminations in benthic mats suggest that the most recent filling trend began abruptly 80 years ago, in the early 1930s. This change increased lake volume by > 50%, triggered the formation of a new, upper, thermohaline convection cell, and cooled the lower convection cell cooled by at least 2 °C and the bottom-most waters by at > 4 °C. Additionally, the depth of the deep chlorophyll a maximum rose by > 2 m, and deep-growing benthic algal mats declined while shallow benthic mats colonized freshly inundated areas. We attribute changes in hydrology to regional variations in air flow related to the strength and position of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) pressure system which have increased the frequency of down-valley, föhn winds associated with surface air temperature warming in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The ASL has also been implicated in the recent warming of the Antarctic Peninsula, and provides a common link for climate-related change on opposite sides of the continent. If this trend persists, Lake Vanda should continue to rise and cool over the next 200 years until a new equilibrium lake level is achieved. Most likely, future lake rise will lead to isothermal conditions not conducive to thermohaline convection, resulting in a drastically different physical, biogeochemical, and biological structure than observed today.

Ocean acidification in the subpolar North Atlantic: rates and mechanisms controlling pH changes (García-Ibáñez et al. 2016)

Abstract: Repeated hydrographic sections provide critically needed data on and understanding of changes in basin-wide ocean CO2 chemistry over multi-decadal timescales. Here, high-quality measurements collected at twelve cruises carried out along the same track between 1991 and 2015 have been used to determine long-term changes in ocean CO2 chemistry and ocean acidification in the Irminger and Iceland basins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Trends were determined for each of the main water masses present and are discussed in the context of the basin-wide circulation. The pH has decreased in all water masses of the Irminger and Iceland basins over the past 25 years with the greatest changes in surface and intermediate waters (between −0.0010 ± 0.0001 and −0.0018 ± 0.0001 pH units yr-1). In order to disentangle the drivers of the pH changes, we decomposed the trends into their principal drivers: changes in temperature, salinity, total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (both its natural and anthropogenic components). The increase in anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) was identified as the main agent of the pH decline, partially offset by AT increases. The acidification of intermediate waters caused by Cant uptake has been reinforced by the aging of the water masses over the period of our analysis. The pH decrease of the deep overflow waters in the Irminger basin was similar to that observed in the upper ocean and was mainly linked to the Cant increase, thus reflecting the recent contact of these deep waters with the atmosphere.

Uncertainty in the Himalayan energy–water nexus: estimating regional exposure to glacial lake outburst floods (Schwanghart et al. 2016)

Abstract: Himalayan water resources attract a rapidly growing number of hydroelectric power projects (HPP) to satisfy Asia’s soaring energy demands. Yet HPP operating or planned in steep, glacier-fed mountain rivers face hazards of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that can damage hydropower infrastructure, alter water and sediment yields, and compromise livelihoods downstream. Detailed appraisals of such GLOF hazards are limited to case studies, however, and a more comprehensive, systematic analysis remains elusive. To this end we estimate the regional exposure of 257 Himalayan HPP to GLOFs, using a flood-wave propagation model fed by Monte Carlo-derived outburst volumes of >2300 glacial lakes. We interpret the spread of thus modeled peak discharges as a predictive uncertainty that arises mainly from outburst volumes and dam-breach rates that are difficult to assess before dams fail. With 66% of sampled HPP are on potential GLOF tracks, up to one third of these HPP could experience GLOF discharges well above local design floods, as hydropower development continues to seek higher sites closer to glacial lakes. We compute that this systematic push of HPP into headwaters effectively doubles the uncertainty about GLOF peak discharge in these locations. Peak discharges farther downstream, in contrast, are easier to predict because GLOF waves attenuate rapidly. Considering this systematic pattern of regional GLOF exposure might aid the site selection of future Himalayan HPP. Our method can augment, and help to regularly update, current hazard assessments, given that global warming is likely changing the number and size of Himalayan meltwater lakes.

Other papers

Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall over Greece (Markonis et al. 2016)

The marine hydrological cycle: the Ocean’s floods and droughts (Gordon, 2016)

The Contribution of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to Projections of Sea Level Change Along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America (Love et al. 2016)

Modeled ecohydrological responses to climate change at seven small watersheds in the northeastern U.S (Pourmokhtarian et al. 2016)

Data-model comparison of temporal variability in long-term time series of large-scale soil moisture (Verrot & Destouni, 2016)

February drying in southeast Brazil and the Australian monsoon: Global mechanism for a regional rainfall feature (Kelly & Mapes, 2016)

Monotonic trends in spatio-temporal distribution and concentration of monsoon precipitation (1901–2002), West Bengal, India (Chatterjee et al. 2016)

The Curious Nature of the Hemispheric Symmetry of the Earth’s Water and Energy Balances (Stephens et al. 2016)

Aragonite saturation states and pH in western Norwegian fjords: seasonal cycles and controlling factors, 2005–2009 (Omar et al. 2016)

Elevation change and the vulnerability of Rhode Island (USA) salt marshes to sea-level rise (Raposa et al. 2016)

Precipitation sensitivity to warming estimated from long island records (Polson et al. 2016)

Stomatal response to humidity and CO2 implicated in recent decline in U.S. evaporation (Rigden & Salvucci, 2016)

International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective (Zhang et al. 2016)

Statistical analyses of potential evapotranspiration changes over the period 1930–2012 in the Nile River riparian countries (Onyutha, 2016)

The influence from the shrinking cryosphere and strengthening evopotranspiration on hydrologic process in a cold basin, Qilian Mountains (Zongxing et al. 2016)

Enhanced summer convective rainfall at Alpine high elevations in response to climate warming (Giorgi et al. 2016)

Assessing the impact of vertical land motion on 20th century global mean sea level estimates (Hamlington et al. 2016)

No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community (Paul et al. 2016)

Snowmelt Rate Dictates Streamflow (Barnhart et al. 2016)

Impacts of open-ocean deep convection in the Weddell Sea on coastal and bottom water temperature (Wang et al. 2016)

Intensification of upwelling along Oman coast in a Warming Scenario (Praveen et al. 2016)

Ocean acidification affects marine chemical communication by changing structure and function of peptide signalling molecules (Roggatz et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

New research – extreme weather (July 31, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on July 31, 2016

Some of the latest papers on extreme weather are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave (Duchez et al. 2016)

Abstract: The North Atlantic and Europe experienced two extreme climate events in 2015: exceptionally cold ocean surface temperatures and a summer heat wave ranked in the top ten over the past 65 years. Here, we show that the cold ocean temperatures were the most extreme in the modern record over much of the mid-high latitude North-East Atlantic. Further, by considering surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling we explain for the first time the genesis of this cold ocean anomaly. We find that it is primarily due to extreme ocean heat loss driven by atmospheric circulation changes in the preceding two winters combined with the re-emergence of cold ocean water masses. Furthermore, we reveal that a similar cold Atlantic anomaly was also present prior to the most extreme European heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these events. For the specific case of 2015, we show that the ocean anomaly is linked to a stationary position of the Jet Stream that favours the development of high surface temperatures over Central Europe during the heat wave. Our study calls for an urgent assessment of the impact of ocean drivers on major European summer temperature extremes in order to provide better advance warning measures of these high societal impact events.

Predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity using outgoing longwave radiation over Africa (Karnauskas & Li, 2016)

Abstract: Seasonal hurricane activity is a function of the amount of initial disturbances (e.g., easterly waves) and the background environment in which they develop into tropical storms (i.e., the main development region). Focusing on the former, a set of indices based solely upon the meridional structure of satellite-derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over the African continent are shown to be capable of predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity with very high rates of success. Predictions of named storms based on the July OLR field and trained only on the time period prior to the year being predicted yield a success rate of 87%, compared to the success rate of NOAA’s August outlooks of 53% over the same period and with the same average uncertainty range (±2). The resulting OLR indices are statistically robust, highly detectable, physically linked to the predictand, and may account for longer-term observed trends.

Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves (Argüeso et al. 2016)

Abstract: Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

A Review of Drought in the Middle East and Southwest Asia (Barlow et al. 2016)

Abstract: The Middle East and Southwest Asia comprise a region that is water-stressed, societally vulnerable, and prone to severe droughts. Large-scale climate variability, particularly La Niña, appears to play an important role in region-wide drought, including the two most severe of the last fifty years—1999-2001 and 2007-2008—with implications for drought forecasting. Important dynamical factors include orography, thermodynamic influence on vertical motion, storm track changes, and moisture transport. Vegetation in the region is strongly impacted by drought and may provide an important feedback mechanism. In future projections, drying of the eastern Mediterranean is a robust feature, as are temperature increases throughout the region, which will affect evaporation and the timing and intensity of snowmelt. Vegetation feedbacks may become more important in a warming climate.

There are a wide range of outstanding issues for understanding, monitoring, and predicting drought in the region, including: dynamics of the regional storm track, the relative importance of the range of dynamical mechanisms related to drought, regional coherence of drought, the relationship between synoptic-scale mechanisms and drought, predictability of vegetation and crop yields, stability of remote influences, data uncertainty, and the role of temperature. Development of a regional framework for cooperative work and dissemination of information and existing forecasts would speed understanding and make better use of available information.

Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions (Woldemeskel & Sharma, 2016)

Abstract: Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

Other papers

The evolution of temperature extremes in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974–2013) (Fortin et al. 2016)

On the emergence of rainfall extremes from ordinary events (Zorzetto et al. 2016)

Changes of extreme drought and flood events in Iran (Modarres, Sarhadi & Burn, 2016)

An integrated analysis of the March 2015 Atacama floods (Wilcox et al. 2016)

Tropical cyclones in the GISS ModelE2 (Camargo et al. 2016)

Trends and variability in extremes of precipitation in Curitiba – Southern Brazil (Pedron et al. 2016)

North Atlantic Storm Track Sensitivity to Projected Sea Surface Temperature: Local versus Remote Influences (Ciasto et al. 2016)

Observed changes in extreme temperature and precipitation over Indonesia (Supari et al. 2016)

A Modeling Study of the Causes and Predictability of the Spring 2011 Extreme US Weather Activity (Schubert et al. 2016)

A Situation-based Analysis of Flash Flood Fatalities in the United States (Terti et al. 2016)

Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (Oliveira et al. 2016)

Can we predict seasonal changes in high impact weather in the United States? (Jung & Kirtman, 2016)

Does population affect the location of flash flood reports? (Marjerison et al. 2016)

The Physics of Drought in the U.S. Central Great Plains (Livneh & Hoerling, 2016)

Heat wave over India during summer 2015: an assessment of real time extended range forecast (Pattanaik et al. 2016)

Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives (Teufel et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »


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