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New research – hydrosphere (September 26, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 26, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on hydrosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities (Hartin et al. 2016)

Abstract: Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model’s sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector’s carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification projections and sensitivity analyses, and it is capable of emulating both current observations and large-scale climate models under multiple emission pathways.

Anthropogenic and climate-driven water depletion in Asia (Yi et al. 2016)

Abstract: Anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be alleviated in wet years and intensified in dry years, and this wet/dry pattern spanning seasons to years is termed climate variability. However, the anthropogenic and climate-driven changes have not been isolated in previous studies; thus, the estimated trend of changes in TWS is strongly dependent on the study period. Here we try to remove the influence of climate variability from the estimation of the anthropogenic contribution, which is an indicator of the environmental burden and important for TWS projections. Toward this end, we propose a linear relationship between the variation in water storage and precipitation. Factors related to the sensitivity of water storage to precipitation are given to correct for the climate variability, and the anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water and groundwater in Asia is estimated to be −187 ± 38 Gt/yr and −100 ± 47 Gt/yr, respectively.

Are long tide gauge records in the wrong place to measure global mean sea level rise? (Thompson et al. 2016)

Abstract: Ocean dynamics, land motion, and changes in Earth’s gravitational and rotational fields cause local sea level change to deviate from the rate of global mean sea level rise. Here, we use observations and simulations of spatial structure in sea level change to estimate the likelihood that these processes cause sea level trends in the longest and highest-quality tide gauge records to be systematically biased relative to the true global mean rate. The analyzed records have an average 20th century rate of approximately 1.6 mm/yr, but based on the locations of these gauges, we show the simple average underestimates the 20th century global mean rate by 0.1  ±  0.2 mm/yr. Given the distribution of potential sampling biases, we find < 1% probability that observed trends from the longest and highest-quality TG records are consistent with global mean rates less than 1.4 mm/yr.

Development of a 0.5 deg global monthly raining day product from 1901-2010 (Stillman & Zeng, 2016)

Abstract: While several long-term global datasets of monthly precipitation amount (P) are widely available, only the Climate Research Unit (CRU) provides long-term global monthly raining day number (N) data (i.e., daily precipitation frequency in a month), with P/N representing the daily precipitation intensity. However, because CRU N is based on a limited number of gauges, it is found to perform poorly over data sparse regions. By combining the CRU method with a short-term gauge-satellite merged global daily precipitation dataset (CMORPH) and a global long-term monthly precipitation dataset (GPCC) with far more gauges than used in CRU, a new 0.5 deg global N dataset from 1901-2010 is developed, which differs significantly from CRU N. Compared with three independent regional daily precipitation products over U.S., China, and South America based on much denser gauge networks than used in CRU, the new product shows significant improvement over CRU N.

Detection and delineation of glacial lakes and identification of potentially dangerous lakes of Dhauliganga basin in the Himalaya by remote sensing techniques (Jha & Khare, 2016)

Abstract: Glaciers are retreating and thinning in the high altitude of the Himalayas due to global warming, causing into formation of numerous glacial lakes. It is necessary to monitor these glacial lakes consistently to save properties and lives downstream from probable disastrous glacial lake outburst flood. In this study, image processing software ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine have been used to analyse multispectral image obtained by Earth resource satellite Landsat for delineating the glacial lakes with the help of image enhancement technique like NDWI. Landsat data since 1972 through 2013 have been used and maximum seven glacial lakes (L1–L7) have been detected and delineated in Dhauliganga catchment, they are situated above 4000 masl. The Glacial Lake L2 (Lat 30°26′45″E and Long 80°23′16″N) is the largest whose surface area was 132,300 m2 in Sept 2009, and L6 (Lat 30°23′27″E and Long 80°31′52″N) is highly unstable with variation rate −55 to +145 % with increasing trend. Additionally, glacial lakes L2 (Lat 30°26′45″E and Long 80°23′16″N) and L6 (Lat 30°23′27″E and Long 80°31′52″N) have been identified as potentially hazardous. These lakes may probably burst; as a result, huge reserve of water and debris may be released all on a sudden. This may transform into hazardous flash flood in downstream causing loss of lives, as well as the destruction of houses, bridges, fields, forests, hydropower stations, roads, etc. It is to note that Dhauliganga river considered in this study is a tributary of Kaliganga river, and should not be confused with its namesake the Dhauliganga river, which is a tributary of Alaknanda river.

Other papers

Extreme hydrological changes in the southwestern US drive reductions in water supply to Southern California by mid century (Pagán et al. 2016)

Regionalizing Africa: Patterns of Precipitation Variability in Observations and Global Climate Models (Badr et al. 2016)

Evidencing decadal and interdecadal hydroclimatic variability over the Central Andes (Segura et al. 2016)

The uncertainties and causes of the recent changes in global evapotranspiration from 1982 to 2010 (Dong & Dai, 2016)

Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China (Sun et al. 2016)

Climate change in the Blue Nile Basin Ethiopia: implications for water resources and sediment transport (Wagena et al. 2016)

Rainfall in Qatar: Is it changing? (Mamoon & Rahman, 2016)

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) (Liu et al. 2016)

A multi-satellite climatology of clouds, radiation and precipitation in southern West Africa and comparison to climate models (Hill et al. 2016)

Detection, Attribution and Projection of Regional Rainfall Changes on (Multi-) Decadal Time Scales: A Focus on Southeastern South America (Zhang et al. 2016)

Which weather systems are projected to cause future changes in mean and extreme precipitation in CMIP5 simulations? (Utsumi et al. 2016)

Out-phased decadal precipitation regime shift in China and the United States (Yang & Fu, 2016)

Forcing of recent decadal variability in the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean (Thompson et al. 2016)

Proxy-based reconstruction of surface water acidification and carbonate saturation of the Levant Sea during the Anthropocene (Bialik & Sisma-Ventura, 2016)

Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations (Byrne & O’Gorman, 2016)

Spatial trend analysis of Hawaiian rainfall from 1920 to 2012 (Frazier & Giambelluca, 2016)

Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissions (Terentieva et al. 2016)

Wind driven mixing at intermediate depths in an ice-free Arctic Ocean (Lincoln et al. 2016)

Seasonal Evolution of Supraglacial Lakes on an East Antarctic Outlet Glacier (Langley et al. 2016)

Temperature-salinity structure of the North Atlantic circulation and associated heat and freshwater transports (Xu et al. 2016)

Eustatic and Relative Sea Level Changes (Rovere et al. 2016)

A mechanism for the response of the zonally asymmetric subtropical hydrologic cycle to global warming (Levine & Boos, 2016)

Quantifying the contribution of glacier-melt water in the expansion of the largest lake in Tibet (Tong et al. 2016)

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New research – climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks (September 22, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 22, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate sensitivity, forcings, and feedbacks are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


The Effects of Ocean Heat Uptake on Transient Climate Sensitivity (Rose & Rayborn, 2016)

Abstract: Transient climate sensitivity tends to increase on multiple timescales in climate models subject to an abrupt CO2 increase. The interdependence of radiative and ocean heat uptake processes governing this increase are reviewed. Heat uptake tends to be spatially localized to the subpolar oceans, and this pattern emerges rapidly from an initially uniform distribution. Global climatic impact of heat uptake is studied through the lens of the efficacy concept and a linear systems perspective in which responses to individual climate forcing agents are additive. Heat uptake can be treated as a slowly varying forcing on the atmosphere and surface, whose efficacy is strongly determined by its geographical pattern. An illustrative linear model driven by simple prescribed uptake patterns demonstrates the emergence of increasing climate sensitivity as a consequence of the slow decay of high-efficacy subpolar heat uptake. Evidence is reviewed for the key role of shortwave cloud feedbacks in setting the high efficacy of ocean heat uptake and thus in increasing climate sensitivity. A causal physical mechanism is proposed, linking subpolar heat uptake to a global-scale increase in lower-tropospheric stability. It is shown that the rate of increase in estimated inversion strength systematically slows as heat uptake decays. Variations in heat uptake should therefore manifest themselves as differences in low cloud feedbacks.

Understanding Climate Feedbacks and Sensitivity Using Observations of Earth’s Energy Budget (Loeb et al. 2016)

Abstract: While climate models and observations generally agree that climate feedbacks collectively amplify the surface temperature response to radiative forcing, the strength of the feedback estimates varies greatly, resulting in appreciable uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity. Because climate feedbacks respond differently to different spatial variations in temperature, short-term observational records have thus far only provided a weak constraint for climate feedbacks operating under global warming. Further complicating matters is the likelihood of considerable time variation in the effective global climate feedback parameter under transient warming. There is a need to continue to revisit the underlying assumptions used in the traditional forcing-feedback framework, with an emphasis on how climate models and observations can best be utilized to reduce the uncertainties. Model simulations can also guide observational requirements and provide insight on how the observational record can most effectively be analyzed in order to make progress in this critical area of climate research.

Insights from a Refined Decomposition of Cloud Feedbacks (Zelinka et al. 2016)

Abstract: Decomposing cloud feedback into components due to changes in several gross cloud properties provides valuable insights into its physical causes. Here we present a refined decomposition that separately considers changes in free tropospheric and low cloud properties, better connecting feedbacks to individual governing processes and avoiding ambiguities present in a commonly used decomposition. It reveals that three net cloud feedback components are robustly nonzero: positive feedbacks from increasing free tropospheric cloud altitude and decreasing low cloud cover and a negative feedback from increasing low cloud optical depth. Low cloud amount feedback is the dominant contributor to spread in net cloud feedback but its anticorrelation with other components damps overall spread. The ensemble mean free tropospheric cloud altitude feedback is roughly 60% as large as the standard cloud altitude feedback because it avoids aliasing in low cloud reductions. Implications for the “null hypothesis” climate sensitivity from well-understood and robustly simulated feedbacks are discussed.

Rapid systematic assessment of the detection and attribution of regional anthropogenic climate change (Stone & Hansen, 2016)

Abstract: Despite being a well-established research field, the detection and attribution of observed climate change to anthropogenic forcing is not yet provided as a climate service. One reason for this is the lack of a methodology for performing tailored detection and attribution assessments on a rapid time scale. Here we develop such an approach, based on the translation of quantitative analysis into the “confidence” language employed in recent Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. While its systematic nature necessarily ignores some nuances examined in detailed expert assessments, the approach nevertheless goes beyond most detection and attribution studies in considering contributors to building confidence such as errors in observational data products arising from sparse monitoring networks. When compared against recent expert assessments, the results of this approach closely match those of the existing assessments. Where there are small discrepancies, these variously reflect ambiguities in the details of what is being assessed, reveal nuances or limitations of the expert assessments, or indicate limitations of the accuracy of the sort of systematic approach employed here. Deployment of the method on 116 regional assessments of recent temperature and precipitation changes indicates that existing rules of thumb concerning the detectability of climate change ignore the full range of sources of uncertainty, most particularly the importance of adequate observational monitoring.

One Year of Downwelling Spectral Radiance Measurements from 100 to 1400 cm−1 at Dome-Concordia: Results in Clear Conditions (Rizzi et al. 2016)

Abstract: The present work examines downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground during 2013 by a Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome-C, Antarctica. A tropospheric backscatter and depolarization Lidar is also deployed at same site and a radiosonde system is routinely operative. The measurements allow characterization of the water vapor and clouds infrared properties in Antarctica under all sky conditions. In this paper we specifically discuss cloud detection and the analysis in clear sky condition, required for the discussion of the results obtained in cloudy conditions. Firstly, the paper discusses the procedures adopted for the quality control of spectra acquired automatically. Then it describes the classification procedure used to discriminate spectra measured in clear-sky from cloudy conditions. Finally a selection is performed and 66 clear cases, spanning the whole year, are compared to simulations. The computation of layer molecular optical depth is performed with line-by-line techniques and a convolution to simulate the REFIR-PAD measurements; the downwelling radiance for selected clear cases is computed with a state-of-the-art adding-doubling code. The mean difference over all selected cases between simulated and measured radiance is within experimental error for all the selected micro-windows except for the negative residuals found for all micro-windows in the range 200 to 400 cm−1, with largest values around 295.1 cm−1. The paper discusses possible reasons for the discrepancy and identifies the incorrect magnitude of the water vapor total absorption coefficient as the cause of such large negative radiance bias below 400 cm−1.

Other papers

Dependence of global radiative feedbacks on evolving patterns of surface heat fluxes (Rugenstein et al. 2016)

Understanding the varied influence of mid-latitude jet position on clouds and cloud-radiative effects in observations and global climate models (Grise & Medeiros, 2016)

Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States (Wickham et al. 2016)

Forced response and internal variability of summer climate over western North America (Kamae et al. 2016)

Detection and attribution of climate change at regional scale: case study of Karkheh river basin in the west of Iran (Zohrabi et al. 2016)

Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared absorption spectra, radiative forcings and global warming potentials of NF3 and CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115) (Totterdill et al. 2016)

A long-term study of aerosol–cloud interactions and their radiative effect at the Southern Great Plains using ground-based measurements (Sena et al. 2016)

Detection of dimming/brightening in Italy from homogenized all-sky and clear-sky surface solar radiation records and underlying causes (1959–2013) (Manara et al. 2016)

Effects of 20–100 nm particles on liquid clouds in the clean summertime Arctic (Leaitch et al. 2016)

Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia (Han et al. 2016)

Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols (Lin et al. 2016)

Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade (Lin et al. 2016)

Reprocessing of HIRS Satellite Measurements from 1980-2015: Development Towards a Consistent Decadal Cloud Record (Menzel et al. 2016)

Radiative Forcing from Anthropogenic Sulfur and Organic Emissions Reaching the Stratosphere (Yu et al. 2016)

Near miss: the importance of the natural atmospheric CO2 concentration to human historical evolution (Archer, 2016)

Long-Term Variations of Noctilucent Clouds at ALOMAR (Fiedler et al. 2016)

Estimating Arctic sea-ice shortwave albedo from MODIS data (Qu et al. 2016)

Surface albedo raise in the South American Chaco: Combined effects of deforestation and agricultural changes (Houspanossian et al. 2016)

New Observational Evidence for a Positive Cloud Feedback that Amplifies the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (Bellomo et al. 2016)

Surface water and heat exchange comparison between alpine meadow and bare land in a permafrost region of the Tibetan Plateau (You et al. 2016)

foF2 vs Solar Indices for the Rome station: looking for the best general relation which is able to describe the anomalous minimum between cycles 23 and 24 (Perna & Pezzopane, 2016)

Comparison of Methods: Attributing the 2014 record European temperatures to human influences (Uhe et al. 2016)

Relevance of long term time – series of atmospheric parameters at a mountain observatory to models for climate change (Kancírová et al. 2016)

An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models (Räisänen, 2016)

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New research – atmospheric composition (September 19, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 19, 2016

Some of the latest papers on atmospheric composition (mainly on greenhouse gases and aerosols) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (Fioletov et al. 2016)

Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005–2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005–2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI.

Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau (Bastos et al. 2016)

Abstract: The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940–1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940–1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr−1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr−1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940–1942 El Niño on the observed stabilization of atmospheric CO2 cannot be confirmed nor discarded, as TRENDY models do not reproduce the expected concurrent strong decrease in terrestrial uptake. Nevertheless, this would further increase the mismatch between observed and modelled CO2 growth rate during the CO2 plateau epoch. Tests performed using the OSCAR (v2.2) model indicate that changes in land use not correctly accounted for during the period (coinciding with drastic socioeconomic changes during the Second World War) could contribute to the additional sink required. Thus, the previously proposed ocean hypothesis for the 1940s plateau cannot be confirmed by independent data. Further efforts are required to reduce uncertainty in the different terms of the carbon budget during the first half of the 20th century and to better understand the long-term variability of the ocean and terrestrial CO2 sinks.

Trace gases in the atmosphere over Russian cities (Elansky et al. 2016)

Abstract: Multiyear observational data (obtained at the mobile railroad laboratory in the course of the 1995–2010 TROICA experiments) on the composition and state of the atmosphere were used to study the features of both spatial and temporal variations in the contents of trace gases in the surface air layer over Russian cities. The obtained characteristics of urban air noticeably differ from those obtained at stationary stations. The emission fluxes of NOx, CO, and CH4 and their integral emissions from large cities have been estimated on the basis of observational data obtained at the mobile laboratory. The values of these emission fluxes reflect the state of urban infrastructure. The integral urban emissions of CO depend on the city size and vary from 50 Gg yr−1 for Yaroslavl to 130 Gg yr−1 for Yekaterinburg. For most cities, they agree with the EDGAR v4.2 data within the limits of experimental error. The agreement is worse for the emissions of NOx. The EDGAR v4.2 data on the emissions of CH4 seem to be overestimated..

Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region (Xu et al. 2016)

Abstract: In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol mass and number concentrations in the pan-Arctic (60°N-90°N) region, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM, version 1.2.1). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol mass concentration by roughly 200% at Barrow and 100% at Alert and accumulation-mode number concentration by about a factor of 2 at Barrow and more than a factor of 10 at Alert in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The magnitude of sea salt aerosol mass and number concentrations at the surface in Barrow during winter simulated by the model configuration that includes this parameterization agrees better with observations by 48% and 12%, respectively, than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. At Alert, the simulation with this parameterization overestimates observed sea salt aerosol mass concentration by 150% during winter in contrast to the underestimation of 63% in the simulation without this frost flower source, while it produces particle number concentration about 14% closer to observation than the standard CESM simulation. However, because the CESM version used here underestimates transported sulfate in winter, the reference accumulation-mode number concentrations at Alert are also underestimated. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases sea salt aerosol optical depth by 10% in the pan-Arctic region and results in a small cooling at the surface. The increase in salt aerosol mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration at supersaturation of 0.1%, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 1.8 W m−2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate. This regional average longwave warming due to the presence of clouds attributed to frost flower sea salts is roughly half of previous observed surface longwave fluxes and cloud-forcing estimates reported in Alaska, implying that the longwave enhancement due to frost flower salts may be comparable to those estimated for anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Since the potential frost flower area is parameterized as the maximum possible region on which frost flowers grow for the modeled atmospheric temperature and sea ice conditions and the model underestimates the number of accumulation-mode particles from mid-latitude anthropogenic sources transported in winter, the calculated aerosol indirect effect of frost flower sea salts in this work can be regarded as an upper bound.

Early detection of volcanic hazard by lidar measurement of carbon dioxide (Fiorani et al. 2016)

Abstract: Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidars has been undertaken at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. A differential absorption lidar instrument will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar). It is based on injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser, double-grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing and optical parametric amplifier. BILLI is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE (BRIDging the gap between Gas Emissions and geophysical observations at active volcanos). It scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Naples, Italy) and Stromboli Volcano (Sicily, Italy) during field campaigns carried out from October 13 to 17, 2014, and from June 24 to 29, 2015, respectively. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater areas. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar. This result represents the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on active volcanos and shows the high potential of laser remote sensing in early detection of volcanic hazard.

Other papers

Validation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor product (Wang et al. 2016)

Long-term visibility variation in Athens (1931–2013): a proxy for local and regional atmospheric aerosol loads (Founda et al. 2016)

Particulate air pollution from wildfires in the Western US under climate change (Liu et al. 2016)

Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States (Zhang et al. 2016)

Radon as a tracer of atmospheric influences on traffic-related air pollution in a small inland city (Williams et al. 2016)

Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. 2016)

The importance of non-fossil sources in carbonaceous aerosols in a megacity of central China during the 2013 winter haze episode: A source apportionment constrained by radiocarbon and organic tracers (Liu et al. 2016)

Estimating Minimum Detection Times for Satellite Remote Sensing of Trends in Mean and Extreme Precipitable Water Vapor (Roman et al. 2016)

A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean (Butler et al. 2016)

Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China (Sun et al. 2016)

Snow Covered Soils Produce N2O that is Lost from Forested Catchments (Enanga et al. 2016)

Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK (Helfter et al. 2016)

Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau (Mousavi et al. 2016)

Long-term variation of stratospheric aerosols observed with lidars over Tsukuba, Japan from 1982 and Lauder, New Zealand from 1992 to 2015 (Sakai et al. 2016)

The natural oscillations in stratospheric ozone observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at the NDACC station Bern (Moreira et al. 2016)

A biogenic CO2 flux adjustment scheme for the mitigation of large-scale biases in global atmospheric CO2 analyses and forecasts (Agustí-Panareda et al. 2016)

Relationship of ground-level ozone with synoptic weather conditions in Chicago (Jing et al. 2016)

Global detection of absorbing aerosols over the ocean in the red and near infrared spectral region (Waquet et al. 2016)

Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver Julesburg basin in July and August 2014 (Halliday et al. 2016)

Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data (Osman et al. 2016)

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New research – carbon cycle (September 12, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 12, 2016

Some of the latest papers on carbon cycle are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Methane emissions proportional to permafrost carbon thawed in Arctic lakes since the 1950s (Anthony et al. 2016)

Abstract: Permafrost thaw exposes previously frozen soil organic matter to microbial decomposition. This process generates methane and carbon dioxide, and thereby fuels a positive feedback process that leads to further warming and thaw. Despite widespread permafrost degradation during the past ~40 years, the degree to which permafrost thaw may be contributing to a feedback between warming and thaw in recent decades is not well understood. Radiocarbon evidence of modern emissions of ancient permafrost carbon is also sparse. Here we combine radiocarbon dating of lake bubble trace-gas methane (113 measurements) and soil organic carbon (289 measurements) for lakes in Alaska, Canada, Sweden and Siberia with numerical modelling of thaw and remote sensing of thermokarst shore expansion. Methane emissions from thermokarst areas of lakes that have expanded over the past 60 years were directly proportional to the mass of soil carbon inputs to the lakes from the erosion of thawing permafrost. Radiocarbon dating indicates that methane age from lakes is nearly identical to the age of permafrost soil carbon thawing around them. Based on this evidence of landscape-scale permafrost carbon feedback, we estimate that 0.2 to 2.5 Pg permafrost carbon was released as methane and carbon dioxide in thermokarst expansion zones of pan-Arctic lakes during the past 60 years.

Rising Plant-mediated Methane Emissions from Arctic Wetlands (Andresen et al. 2016)

Abstract: Plant-mediated CH4 flux is an important pathway for land-atmosphere CH4 emissions but the magnitude, timing, and environmental controls, spanning scales of space and time, remain poorly understood in arctic tundra wetlands, particularly under the long term effects of climate change. CH4 fluxes were measured in situ during peak growing season for the dominant aquatic emergent plants in the Alaskan arctic coastal plain, Carex aquatilis and Arctophila fulva, to assess the magnitude and species-specific controls on CH4 flux. Plant biomass was a strong predictor of A. fulva CH4 flux while water depth and thaw depth were co-predictors for C. aquatilis CH4 flux. We used plant and environmental data from 1971-72 from the historic International Biological Program (IBP) research site near Barrow, Alaska, which we resampled in 2010-13, to quantify changes in plant biomass and thaw depth, and used these to estimate species-specific decadal-scale changes in CH4 fluxes. A ~60% increase in CH4 flux was estimated from the observed plant biomass and thaw depth increases in tundra ponds over the past 40 years. Despite covering only ~5% of the landscape, we estimate that aquatic C. aquatilis and A. fulva account for two-thirds of the total regional CH4 flux of the Barrow Peninsula. The regionally observed increases in plant biomass and active layer thickening over the past 40 years not only have major implications for energy and water balance, but have significantly altered land-atmosphere CH4 emissions for this region, potentially acting as a positive feedback to climate warming.

Enhanced carbon export to the abyssal depths driven by atmosphere dynamics (Pedrosa-Pàmies et al. 2016)

Abstract: Long-term biogeochemical observations are critical to understand the natural ability of the oceans to fix CO2 into organic carbon and export it to the deep as sinking particles. Here we present results from a 3 year (2010–2013) sediment trap deployment that allowed detecting interannual variations of carbon fluxes beyond 4000 m depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Anomalous atmospheric conditions triggering strong heat losses in winter–spring 2012 resulted in convective mixing, nutrient uplifting, and a diatom-dominated bloom southeast of Crete. Phytoplankton growth, reinforced by the arrival of nutrients from airborne Etna volcano ash, was the highest in the last decade (satellite-derived Chl a concentrations up to 1.9 mg m−3). This situation caused carbon export to increase by 2 orders of magnitude (12.2 mg m−2 d−1) with respect to typical values, which demonstrates how pulses of sinking fresh phytodetritus linked to rare atmospheric processes can episodically impact one of the most oligotrophic environments in the world ocean.

Partitioning uncertainty in ocean carbon uptake projections: Internal variability, emission scenario, and model structure (Lovenduski et al. 2016)

Abstract: We quantify and isolate the sources of projection uncertainty in annual-mean sea-air CO2 flux over the period 2006–2080 on global and regional scales using output from two sets of ensembles with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and models participating in the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For annual-mean, globally-integrated sea-air CO2 flux, uncertainty grows with prediction lead time and is primarily attributed to uncertainty in emission scenario. At the regional scale of the California Current System, we observe relatively high uncertainty that is nearly constant for all prediction lead times, and is dominated by internal climate variability and model structure, respectively in the CESM and CMIP5 model suites. Analysis of CO2 flux projections over 17 biogeographical biomes reveals a spatially heterogenous pattern of projection uncertainty. On the biome scale, uncertainty is driven by a combination of internal climate variability and model structure, with emission scenario emerging as the dominant source for long projection lead times in both modeling suites.

The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale (Hursh et al. 2016)

Abstract: Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously-reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs, and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture or soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg/yr, but also highlight regions of uncertainty where more observations are required or environmental controls are hard to constrain.

Other papers

Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes of a temperate mire in Central Europe (Fortuniak et al. 2016)

Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region (Frankenberg et al. 2016)

Greenhouse gas emissions from natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in sub-Saharan Africa: synthesis of available data and suggestions for further research (Kim et al. 2016)

Peak season carbon exchange shifts from a sink to a source following 50+ years of herbivore exclusion in an Arctic tundra ecosystem (Lara et al. 2016)

Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050 (He et al. 2016)

CH4 concentrations over the Amazon from GOSAT consistent with in situ vertical profile data (Webb et al. 2016)

CH4 exchanges of the natural ecosystems in China during the past three decades: the role of wetland extent and its dynamics (Wei & Wang, 2016)

Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake Passage (Song et al. 2016)

Biomass turnover time in terrestrial ecosystems halved by land use (Erb et al. 2016)

Permafrost carbon as a missing link to explain CO 2 changes during the last deglaciation (Crichton et al. 2016)

High export via small particles before the onset of the North Atlantic spring bloom (Giering et al. 2016)

Inorganic carbon cycling and biogeochemical processes in an Arctic inland sea (Hudson Bay) (Burt et al. 2016)

Constrained partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration reduces model uncertainties of forest ecosystem carbon fluxes but not stocks (Carbone et al. 2016)

Century-long increasing trend and variability of dissolved organic carbon export from the Mississippi River basin driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing (Ren et al. 2016)

Apparent winter CO2 uptake by a boreal forest due to decoupling (Jocher et al. 2016)

Over-estimating climate warming-induced methane gas escape from the seafloor by neglecting multi-phase flow dynamics (Stranne et al. 2016)

Strong regional atmospheric 14C signature of respired CO2 observed from a tall tower over the mid-western United States (LaFranchi et al. 2016)

Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status (Ťupek et al. 2016)

Methane Emissions from global rice fields: Magnitude, spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls (Zhang et al. 2016)

Modeling pCO2 variability in the Gulf of Mexico (Xue et al. 2016)

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New research – extreme weather (September 7, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 7, 2016

Some of the latest papers on extreme weather are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


High-income does not protect against hurricane losses (Geiger et al. 2016)

Abstract: Damage due to tropical cyclones accounts for more than 50% of all meteorologically-induced economic losses worldwide. Their nominal impact is projected to increase substantially as the exposed population grows, per capita income increases, and anthropogenic climate change manifests. So far, historical losses due to tropical cyclones have been found to increase less than linearly with a nation’s affected gross domestic product (GDP). Here we show that for the United States this scaling is caused by a sub-linear increase with affected population while relative losses scale super-linearly with per capita income. The finding is robust across a multitude of empirically derived damage models that link the storm’s wind speed, exposed population, and per capita GDP to reported losses. The separation of both socio-economic predictors strongly affects the projection of potential future hurricane losses. Separating the effects of growth in population and per-capita income, per hurricane losses with respect to national GDP are projected to triple by the end of the century under unmitigated climate change, while they are estimated to decrease slightly without the separation.

A Review of Recent Advances in Research on Extreme Heat Events (Horton et al. 2016)

Abstract: Reviewing recent literature, we report that changes in extreme heat event characteristics such as magnitude, frequency, and duration are highly sensitive to changes in mean global-scale warming. Numerous studies have detected significant changes in the observed occurrence of extreme heat events, irrespective of how such events are defined. Further, a number of these studies have attributed present-day changes in the risk of individual heat events and the documented global-scale increase in such events to anthropogenic-driven warming. Advances in process-based studies of heat events have focused on the proximate land-atmosphere interactions through soil moisture anomalies, and changes in occurrence of the underlying atmospheric circulation associated with heat events in the midlatitudes. While evidence for a number of hypotheses remains limited, climate change nevertheless points to tail risks of possible changes in heat extremes that could exceed estimates generated from model outputs of mean temperature. We also explore risks associated with compound extreme events and nonlinear impacts associated with extreme heat.

Northern Hemisphere winter storm track trends since 1959 derived from multiple reanalysis datasets (Chang & Yau, 2016)

Abstract: In this study, a comprehensive comparison of Northern Hemisphere winter storm track trend since 1959 derived from multiple reanalysis datasets and rawinsonde observations has been conducted. In addition, trends in terms of variance and cyclone track statistics have been compared. Previous studies, based largely on the National Center for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis (NNR), have suggested that both the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks have significantly intensified between the 1950s and 1990s. Comparison with trends derived from rawinsonde observations suggest that the trends derived from NNR are significantly biased high, while those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts 40-year Reanalysis and the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis are much less biased but still too high. Those from the two twentieth century reanalysis datasets are most consistent with observations but may exhibit slight biases of opposite signs. Between 1959 and 2010, Pacific storm track activity has likely increased by 10 % or more, while Atlantic storm track activity has likely increased by <10 %. Our analysis suggests that trends in Pacific and Atlantic basin wide storm track activity prior to the 1950s derived from the two twentieth century reanalysis datasets are unlikely to be reliable due to changes in density of surface observations. Nevertheless, these datasets may provide useful information on interannual variability, especially over the Atlantic.

Landslides in a changing climate (Gariano & Guzzetti, 2016)

Abstract: Warming of the Earth climate system is unequivocal. That climate changes affect the stability of natural and engineered slopes and have consequences on landslides, is also undisputable. Less clear is the type, extent, magnitude and direction of the changes in the stability conditions, and on the location, abundance, activity and frequency of landslides in response to the projected climate changes. Climate and landslides act at only partially overlapping spatial and temporal scales, complicating the evaluation of the climate impacts on landslides. We review the literature on landslide-climate studies, and find a bias in their geographical distribution, with large parts of the world not investigated. We recommend to fill the gap with new studies in Asia, South America, and Africa. We examine advantages and limits of the approaches adopted to evaluate the effects of climate variations on landslides, including prospective modelling and retrospective methods that use landslide and climate records. We consider changes in temperature, precipitation, wind and weather systems, and their direct and indirect effects on the stability of single slopes, and we use a probabilistic landslide hazard model to appraise regional landslide changes. Our review indicates that the modelling results of landslide-climate studies depend more on the emission scenarios, the Global Circulation Models, and the methods to downscale the climate variables, than on the description of the variables controlling slope processes. We advocate for constructing ensembles of projections based on a range of emissions scenarios, and to use carefully results from worst-case scenarios that may over/under-estimate landslide hazards and risk. We further advocate that uncertainties in the landslide projections must be quantified and communicated to decision makers and the public. We perform a preliminary global assessment of the future landslide impact, and we present a global map of the projected impact of climate change on landslide activity and abundance. Where global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of severe rainfall events, a primary trigger of rapid-moving landslides that cause many landslide fatalities, we predict an increase in the number of people exposed to landslide risk. Finally, we give recommendations for landslide adaptation and risk reduction strategies in the framework of a warming climate.

An interdecadal shift in the number of hot nights around 1997 over Eastern China (Chen et al. 2016)

Abstract: In this study, we investigate the interdecadal variation in summer nighttime hot extremes over eastern China using observational daily minimum temperature during 1979–2013. Results show a statistically significant shift in the number of hot nights (NHN) around 1997 with averaged NHN over eastern China of 6 days more during 1997–2013 than 1979–1996. The time series of the first leading Empirical Orthogonal Function mode of the NHN is closely related with sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical western pacific warm pool, Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which all experienced substantial interdecadal changes in the late 1990s. Other factors such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects may also contribute to the interdecadal change of the NHN around 1997.

Other papers

Intensification of landfalling typhoons over the northwest Pacific since the late 1970s (Mei & Xie, 2016)

Increased drought and pluvial risk over California due to changing oceanic conditions (Kam & Sheffield, 2016)

Comparing hurricane and extratropical storm surge for the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast Coast of the United States for 1979–2013 (Booth et al. 2016)

Storm track processes and the opposing influences of climate change (Shaw et al. 2016)

Can reanalysis datasets describe the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes over China? (Zhu et al. 2016)

Exceptionally extreme drought in Madeira Archipelago in 2012: Vegetation impacts and driving conditions (Liberato et al. 2016)

An independent assessment of anthropogenic attribution statements for recent extreme temperature and rainfall events (Angélil et al. 2016)

Future hurricane storm surge risk for the U.S. gulf and Florida coasts based on projections of thermodynamic potential intensity (Balaguru et al. 2016)

Evaluation of downscaled wind speeds and parameterised gusts for recent and historical windstorms in Switzerland (Stucki et al. 2016)

The Record-Breaking 2015 Hurricane Season in the eastern North Pacific: An Analysis of Environmental Conditions (Collins et al. 2016)

Centennial drought outlook over the CONUS using NASA-NEX downscaled climate ensemble (Ahmadalipour et al. 2016)

Compounding factors causing the unusual absence of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific during August 2014 (Hong et al. 2016)

Synoptic climatology of the early 21st century drought in the Colorado River Basin and relationships to reservoir water levels (Kirk et al. 2016)

The challenge of accurately quantifying future megadrought risk in the American Southwest (Coats & Mankin, 2016)

Will Global Warming Make Hurricane Forecasting More Difficult? (Emanuel, 2016)

A comparison of heat wave climatologies and trends in China based on multiple definitions (You et al. 2016)

Diagnosing United States hurricane landfall risk: An alternative to count-based methodologies (Staehling & Truchelut, 2016)

Spatial and temporal analysis of the drought vulnerability and risks over eight decades in a semi-arid region (Tensift basin: Morocco) (Fniguire et al. 2016)

Distinct weekly cycles of thunderstorms and a potential connection with aerosol type in China (Yang et al. 2016)

Trends and variability in droughts in the Pacific Islands and northeast Australia (McGree et al. 2016)

Spatial and temporal variations of blowing dust events in the Taklimakan Desert (Yang et al. 2016)

My Drought is Different from Your Drought: A Case Study of the Policy Implications of Multiple Ways of Knowing Drought (Kohl & Knox, 2016)

Selected physical parameters as determinants of flood fatalities in Bangladesh, 1972–2013 (Paul et al. 2016)

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New research – temperature (September 5, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on September 5, 2016

Some of the latest papers on temperature (in a climatic sense) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Observed and simulated full-depth ocean heat-content changes for 1970–2005 (Cheng et al. 2016)

Abstract: Greenhouse-gas emissions have created a planetary energy imbalance that is primarily manifested by increasing ocean heat content (OHC). Updated observational estimates of full-depth OHC change since 1970 are presented that account for recent advancements in reducing observation errors and biases. The full-depth OHC has increased by 0.74 [0.68, 0.80]  ×  1022 J yr-1 (0.46 Wm−2) and 1.22 [1.16–1.29]  ×  1022 J yr-1 (0.75 Wm-2) for 1970–2005 and 1992–2005, respectively, with a 5 to 95 % confidence interval of the median. The CMIP5 models show large spread in OHC changes, suggesting that some models are not state-of-the-art and require further improvements. However, the ensemble median has excellent agreement with our observational estimate: 0.68 [0.54–0.82]  ×  1022 J yr-1 (0.42 Wm-2) from 1970 to 2005 and 1.25 [1.10–1.41]  ×  1022 J yr-1 (0.77 Wm-2) from 1992 to 2005. These results increase confidence in both the observational and model estimates to quantify and study changes in Earth’s energy imbalance over the historical period. We suggest that OHC be a fundamental metric for climate model validation and evaluation, especially for forced changes (decadal timescales).

Pacific sea level rise patterns and global surface temperature variability (Peyser et al. 2016)

Abstract: During 1998–2012, climate change and sea level rise (SLR) exhibit two notable features: a slowdown of global surface warming (hiatus) and a rapid SLR in the tropical western Pacific. To quantify their relationship, we analyze the long-term control simulations of 38 climate models. We find a significant and robust correlation between the east-west contrast of dynamic sea level (DSL) in the Pacific and global mean surface temperature (GST) variability on both interannual and decadal time scales. Based on linear regression of the multimodel ensemble mean, the anomalously fast SLR in the western tropical Pacific observed during 1998–2012 indicates suppression of a potential global surface warming of 0.16° ± 0.06°C. In contrast, the Pacific contributed 0.29° ± 0.10°C to the significant interannual GST increase in 1997/1998. The Pacific DSL anomalies observed in 2015 suggest that the strong El Niño in 2015/2016 could lead to a 0.21° ± 0.07°C GST jump.

Contrasting effects of urbanization and agriculture on surface temperature in eastern China (Zhou et al. 2016)

Abstract: The combined effect of urbanization and agriculture, two most pervasive land use activities, on the surface climate remains poorly understood. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data over 2010–2015 and forests as reference, we showed that urbanization warmed the land surface temperature (LST), especially during the daytime and in growing seasons (maximized at 5.0 ± 2.0°C in May), whereas agriculture (dominated by double-cropping system) cooled the LST in two growing seasons during the daytime and all the months but July during the nighttime in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Collectively, they had insignificant effects on the LST during the day (−0.01°C) and cooled the LST by −0.6°C at night. We also found large geographic variations associated with their thermal effects, indicated by a warming tendency southward. These spatiotemporal patterns depend strongly on vegetation activity, evapotranspiration, surface albedo, and the background climate. Our results emphasize the great potential of agriculture in offsetting the heating effects caused by rapid urbanization in China.

A summer temperature bias in early alcohol thermometers (Camuffo & Valle, 2016)

Abstract: This paper analyses the response of alcohol thermometers in relation to the departure from linearity and the choice of the calibration points. The result is that alcohol thermometers are affected by large departures that reach a maximum (i.e. −6 °C) at 50 °C ambient temperature. This may have caused a severe bias in early records, when alcohol thermometers were popular, especially during the Little Ice Age. Choosing a lower temperature for the upper point, calibration may substantially reduce this bias. Examples are given with thermometers in use in the 17th and 18th centuries. A careful correction of long series is necessary to avoid misleading climate interpretations.

The phenology of Arctic Ocean Surface warming (Steele & Dickinson, 2016)

Abstract: In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously warm SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean warming responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near-term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface warming in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season.

Other papers

Comparisons of time series of annual mean surface air temperature for China since the 1900s: Observations, model simulations and extended reanalysis (Li et al. 2016)

First ground-based observations of mesopause temperatures above the Eastern-Mediterranean Part I: Multi-day oscillations and tides (Silber et al. 2016)

An enhanced single-channel algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from Landsat series data (Wang et al. 2016)

Observed changes of temperature extremes in Serbia over the period 1961 − 2010 (Ruml et al. 2016)

The inter-annual variations and the long-term trends of monthly air temperatures in Iraq over the period 1941–2013 (Muslih & Błażejczyk, 2016)

A multiregion model evaluation and attribution study of historical changes in the area affected by temperature and precipitation extremes (Dittus et al. 2016)

Changes in wind speed under heat waves enhance urban heat islands in Beijing metropolitan area (Li et al. 2016)

Regional differential behaviour of maximum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula regarding the Summer NAO in the second half of the twentieth century (Favà et al. 2016)

Confidence intervals for time averages in the presence of long range correlations, a case study on earth surface temperature anomalies (Massah & Kantz, 2016)

An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815–2013 with sparse observational input (Giese et al. 2016)

Arctic-North Pacific coupled impacts on the late autumn cold in North America (Sung et al. 2016)

Wet-bulb, dew point, and air temperature trends in Spain (Moratiel et al. 2016)

Insights into elevation-dependent warming in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas from CMIP5 model simulations (Palazzi et al. 2016)

Spatial variations in temperature in a mountainous region of Jeju Island, South Korea (Um & Kim, 2016)

Gap filling and homogenization of climatological datasets in the headwater region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia (Woldesenbet et al. 2016)

A homogenized long-term temperature record for the Western Cape Province in South Africa: 1916–2013 (Lakhraj-Govender et al. 2016)

Inter-model diversity of Arctic amplification caused by global warming and its relationship with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone in CMIP5 climate models (Yim et al. 2016)

Urban–rural differences in near-surface air temperature as resolved by the Central Europe Refined analysis (CER): sensitivity to planetary boundary layer schemes and urban canopy models (Jänicke et al. 2016)

Monotonic Decrease of the Zonal SST Gradient of the Equatorial Pacific as a Function of CO2 Concentration in CCSM3 and CCSM4 (Yang et al. 2016)

Recent seasonal and long-term changes in southern Australian frost occurrence (Crimp et al. 2016)

Surface temperature trends from homogenized time series in South Africa: 1931–2015 (Kruger & Nxumalo, 2016)

Investigations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure and oscillations over sub-tropical regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Sharma et al. 2016)

Recent amplification of the North American winter temperature dipole (Singh et al. 2016)

Use of remotely-sensed land surface temperature as a proxy for air temperatures at high elevations: Findings from a 5000 metre elevational transect across Kilimanjaro (Pepin et al. 2016)

Spatial distribution of temperature trends and extremes over Maharashtra and Karnataka States of India (Dhorde et al. 2016)

Assessing atmospheric temperature data sets for climate studies (Cederlöf et al. 2016)

Ocean heat uptake and interbasin transport of passive and redistributive surface heating (Garuba & Klinger, 2016)

Temperature and precipitation regional climate series over the central Pyrenees during 1910–2013 (Pérez-Zanón et al. 2016)

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New research – climate change impacts on cryosphere (August 31, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 31, 2016

Some of the latest papers on climate change impacts on cryosphere are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Rapid glacial retreat on the Kamchatka Peninsula during the early 21st century (Lynch et al. 2016)

Abstract: Monitoring glacier fluctuations provides insights into changing glacial environments and recent climate change. The availability of satellite imagery offers the opportunity to view these changes for remote and inaccessible regions. Gaining an understanding of the ongoing changes in such regions is vital if a complete picture of glacial fluctuations globally is to be established. Here, satellite imagery (Landsat 7, 8 and ASTER) is used to conduct a multi-annual remote sensing survey of glacier fluctuations on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia) over the 2000–2014 period. Glacier margins were digitised manually and reveal that, in 2000, the peninsula was occupied by 673 glaciers, with a total glacier surface area of 775.7 ± 27.9 km2. By 2014, the number of glaciers had increased to 738 (reflecting the fragmentation of larger glaciers), but their surface area had decreased to 592.9 ± 20.4 km2. This represents a  ∼  24 % decline in total glacier surface area between 2000 and 2014 and a notable acceleration in the rate of area loss since the late 20th century. Analysis of possible controls indicates that these glacier fluctuations were likely governed by variations in climate (particularly rising summer temperatures), though the response of individual glaciers was modulated by other (non-climatic) factors, principally glacier size, local shading and debris cover.

How predictable is the timing of a summer ice-free Arctic? (Jahn et al. 2016)

Abstract: Climate Model simulations give a large range of over 100 years for predictions of when the Arctic could first become ice-free in the summer, and many studies have attempted to narrow this uncertainty range. However, given the chaotic nature of the climate system, what amount of spread in the prediction of an ice-free summer Arctic is inevitable? Based on results from large ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model, we show that internal variability alone leads to a prediction uncertainty of about two decades, while scenario uncertainty between the strong (RCP8.5) and medium (RCP4.5) forcing scenarios adds at least another 5 years. Common metrics of the past and present mean sea ice state (such as ice extent, volume, and thickness) as well as global mean temperatures do not allow a reduction of the prediction uncertainty from internal variability.

Satellite observed changes in the Northern Hemisphere snow cover phenology and the associated radiative forcing and feedback between 1982 and 2013 (Chen et al. 2016)

Abstract: Quantifying continental-scale changes in snow cover phenology (SCP) and evaluating their associated radiative forcing and feedback is essential for meteorological, hydrological, ecological, and societal purposes. However, the current SCP research is inadequate because few published studies have explored the long-term changes in SCP, as well as their associated radiative forcing and feedback in the context of global warming. Based on satellite-observed snow cover extent (SCE) and land surface albedo datasets, and using a radiative kernel modeling method, this study quantified changes in SCP and the associated radiative forcing and feedback over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow-covered landmass from 1982 to 2013. The monthly SCE anomaly over the NH displayed a significant decreasing trend from May to August (−0.89 × 106 km2 decade−1), while an increasing trend from November to February (0.65 × 106 km2 decade−1) over that period. The changes in SCE resulted in corresponding anomalies in SCP. The snow onset date (Do) moved forward slightly, but the snow end date (De) advanced significantly at the rate of 1.91 days decade−1, with a 73% contribution from decreased SCE in Eurasia (EU). The anomalies in De resulted in a weakened snow radiative forcing of 0.12 (±0.003) W m−2 and feedback of 0.21 (±0.005) W m−2 K−1, in melting season, over the NH, from 1982 to 2013. Compared with the SCP changes in EU, the SCP anomalies in North America were relatively stable because of the clearly contrasting De anomalies between the mid- and high latitudes in this region.

Grounding Line Variability and Subglacial Lake Drainage on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica (Joughin et al. 2016)

Abstract: We produced a 6-year time series of differential tidal displacement for Pine Island Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using speckle-tracking methods applied to fine-resolution TerraSAR-X data. These results reveal that the main grounding line has maintained a relatively steady position over the last 6 years, following the speedup that terminated in ~2009. In the middle of the shelf, there are grounded spots that migrate downstream over the 6-year record. Examination of high-resolution DEMs reveals that these grounded spots form where deep keels (thickness anomalies) advect over an approximately flow-parallel bathymetric high, maintaining intermittent contact with the bed. These datasets also reveal several subsidence and uplift events associated with subglacial lake drainages in the fast-flowing region above the grounding line. Although these drainages approximately double the rate of subglacial water flow over periods of a few weeks, they have no discernible effect on horizontal flow speed.

Influences of surface air temperature and atmospheric circulation on winter snow cover variability over Europe (Ye & Lau, 2016)

Abstract: The relationships between snow cover (SC) variability in Europe, the local surface air temperature (SAT), and the associated atmospheric circulation changes are studied. This investigation indicates that the European winter SC is closely correlated with SAT. Higher (lower) SC is coincident with strong and large-scale surface cooling (warming). Similar but weaker temperature signals are observed in the middle and upper troposphere. Periods of enhanced (reduced) SC are characterized by surface heat loss (gain), partly due to dampened (enhanced) sensible heat fluxes towards the ground surface, which is in turn related to the lower (higher) SAT. Higher (lower) SC is also accompanied by reduced (enhanced) downward longwave irradiance. Consistent with previous studies, our analysis demonstrates that variations in the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic/European sector, including those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, are accompanied by changes in horizontal heat advection and SC over Europe. The circulation changes modulate the water vapour transport towards the European continent, and thereby influence the available water vapour there and lead to fluctuations in downward longwave irradiance and cloud cover. The wind anomalies associated with these variations also drive surface heat flux changes in the North Atlantic, which in turn lead to well-defined sea surface temperature (SST) tendencies. The above characteristic patterns exhibit notable variability in different calendar months of the winter season. The monthly averaged circulation anomalies are evidently related to changes in the tracks of atmospheric disturbances with synoptic time scales. Overall, there is no strong evidence supporting a principal role for the North Atlantic SST or the El Niño Southern Oscillation in driving inter-annual SC variability over Europe.

Other papers

Anthropogenic impact on Antarctic surface mass balance, currently masked by natural variability, to emerge by mid-century (Previdi & Polvani, 2016)

Reduced melt on debris-covered glaciers: investigations from Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal (Vincent et al. 2016)

Increasing water vapor transport to the Greenland Ice Sheet revealed using self-organizing maps (Mattingly et al. 2016)

Fine-scale spatial variation in ice cover and surface temperature trends across the surface of the Laurentian Great Lakes (Mason et al. 2016)

On the feedback of the winter NAO-driven sea ice anomalies (García-Serrano & Frankignoul, 2016)

Estimation of melt pond fraction over high-concentration Arctic sea ice using AMSR-E passive microwave data (Tanaka et al. 2016)

A simple equation for the melt elevation feedback of ice sheets (Levermann & Winkelmann, 2016)

Hail climatology and trends in Romania: 1961-2014 (Burcea et al. 2016)

Influence of the Eurasian snow on the negative North Atlantic Oscillation in subseasonal forecasts of the cold winter 2009/2010 (Orsolini et al. 2016)

Annual Greenland accumulation rates (2009–2012) from airborne snow radar (Koenig et al. 2016)

Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland (Carrivick et al. 2016)

The robustness of mid-latitude weather pattern changes due to Arctic sea-ice loss (Chen et al. 2016)

Arctic Sea Ice Seasonal Prediction by a Linear Markov Model (Yuan et al. 2016)

Testing the recent snow drought as an analog for climate warming sensitivity of Cascades snowpacks (Cooper et al. 2016)

Summer Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies over the Arctic Ocean and Their Influences on September Sea Ice Extent: A Cautionary Tale (Serreze et al. 2016)

The abandoned ice sheet base at Camp Century, Greenland, in a warming climate (Colgan et al. 2016)

Thermal impacts of engineering activities and vegetation layer on permafrost in different alpine ecosystems of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China (Wu et al. 2016)

Greenland annual accumulation along the EGIG line, 1959–2004, from ASIRAS airborne radar and neutron-probe density measurements (Overly et al. 2016)

Attribution of spring snow water equivalent (SWE) changes over the northern hemisphere to anthropogenic effects (Jeong et al. 2016)

Historical analysis and visualization of the retreat of Findelengletscher, Switzerland, 1859-2010 (Rastner et al. 2016)

Observed spatio-temporal changes of winter snow albedo over the north-west Himalaya (Negi et al. 2016)

An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback (Minder et al. 2016)

Statistical indicators of Arctic sea-ice stability – prospects and limitations (Bathiany et al. 2016)

Effects of stratified active layers on high-altitude permafrost warming: a case study on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (Pan et al. 2016)

Posted in Climate science, Global warming effects | Leave a Comment »

Climate related papers in Boreal Environmental Research

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 27, 2016

All climate related papers in journal Boreal Environmental Research between years 1996 and 2012 are listed below.

Likely responses to climate change of fish associations in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin: concepts, methods and findings (Regier et al. 1996)
Climate change and water resources in Finland (Vehviläinen & Huttunen, 1997)
Effects of climatic change on hydrological patterns of a forested catchment: a physically based modeling approach (Lepistö & Kivinen, 1997)
Impacts of climatic change on agricultural nutrient losses in Finland (Kallio et al. 1997)
Modelling the effects of climate change on lake eutrophication (Frisk et al. 1997)
Temperature habitats for freshwater fishes in a warming climate (Lappalainen & Lehtonen, 1997)
Possible effects of climate warming on the timing of spawning, juvenile abundance and catches of pikeperch, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.) (Lappalainen et al. 1997)
The Baltic Sea ice season in changing climate (Haapala & Leppäranta, 1997)
Uncertainties of climatic change impacts in Finnish watersheds: a Bayesian network analysis of expert knowledge (Kuikka & Varis, 1997)
Modelling the effects of climate change, acidic deposition and forest harvesting on the biogeochemistry of a boreal forested catchment in Finland (Forsius et al. 1997)
Climate change and river runoff in Scandinavia, approaches and challenges (Gottschalk & Krasovskaia, 1997)
Variability of climatic and ice conditions in the Bohai Sea, China (Zhang et al. 1997)
Modelling the effect of climate change on nutrient loading, temperature regime and algal biomass in the Gulf of Finland (Inkala et al. 1997)
The influence of Kola Peninsula, continental European and marine sources on the number concentrations and scattering coefficients of the atmospheric aerosol in Finnish Lapland (Virkkula et al. 1997)
The effects of climate change on the temperature conditions of lakes (Elo et al. 1998)
Mean long-term surface energy balance components in Finland during the summertime (Venäläinen et al. 1998)
On the influence of peatland draining on local climate (Venäläinen et al. 1999)
Predicting variations in methane emissions from boreal peatlands through regression models (Kettunen et al. 2000)
Annual variability of nitrogen concentrations and export from forested catchments: A consequence of climatic variability, sampling strategies or human interference? (Andersson & Lepistö, 2000)
Biogenic aerosol formation in the boreal forest (Kulmala et al. 2000)
Characteristics of the atmospheric particle formation events observed at a borel forest site in southern Finland (Mäkelä et al. 2000)
Characterization of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations at forest sites in southern and northern Finland using back trajectories (Kulmala et al. 2000)
Aerosol physico-chemical characteristics over a boreal forest determined by volatility analysis (O’Dowd et al. 2000)
Using a cloud condensation nuclei counter to study CCN properties and concentrations (Aalto & Kulmala, 2000)
Aerosol dynamical model MULTIMONO (Pirjola & Kulmala, 2000)
Microbial activity of boreal forest soil in a cold climate (Kähkönen et al. 2001)
Parametrization of a biochemical CO2 exchange model for birch (Betula pendula Roth.) (Aalto & Juurola, 2001)
Eddy covariance fluxes over a boreal Scots pine forest (Markkanen et al. 2001)
Trends in sea level variability in the Baltic Sea (Johansson et al. 2001)
Environmental conditions and the development of Planktonema lauterbornii Schmidle in phytoplankton of Karhijärvi, a lake in SW Finland (Nõges & Viirret, 2001)
Evapotranspiration 1961–1990 in Finland as function of meteorological and land-type factors (Solantie & Joukola, 2001)
Growth indices of North European Scots pine record the seasonal North Atlantic Oscillation (Lindholm et al. 2001)
Modeling wind-driven circulation in Lake Ladoga (Beletsky, 2001)
Geochemical expressions of late- and post-glacial land–sea interactions in the southern Baltic Sea (Müller, 2002)
Has the project BALTEX so far met its original objectives? (Raschke et al. 2002)
The development of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO (Döscher et al. 2002)
The BALTEX regional reanalysis project (Fortelius et al. 2002)
A numerical study using the Canadian Regional Climate Model for the PIDCAP period (Lorant et al. 2002)
Validation of HIRLAM boundary-layer structures over the Baltic Sea (Pirazzini et al. 2002)
Cluster analysis results of regional climate model simulations in the PIDCAP period (Kücken et al. 2002)
Large-Eddy-Simulation of an off-ice airflow during BASIS (Etling et al. 2002)
Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model (Gryning & Batchvarova, 2002)
Cloud observations and modeling within the European BALTEX Cloud Liquid Water Network (Crewell et al. 2002)
The satellite derived surface radiation budget for BALTEX (Hollmann & Gratzki, 2002)
BALTEX weather radar-based precipitation products and their accuracies (Koistinen & Michelson, 2002)
Retrieval of the spatial distribution of liquid water path from combined ground-based and satellite observations for atmospheric model evaluation (Feijt et al. 2002)
Frequency of circulation patterns and air temperature variations in Europe (Sepp & Jaagus, 2002)
Circulation weather types and their influence on temperature and precipitation in Estonia (Post et al. 2002)
Atmospheric precipitable water in Estonia, 1990–2001 (Okulov et al. 2002)
Selection of representative stations by means of a cluster analysis for the BAMAR region in the PIDCAP period (Oesterle, 2002)
BALTEX water and energy budgets in the NCEP/DOE reanalysis II (Roads et al. 2002)
Circulation of the Baltic Sea and its connection to the Pan-Arctic region — a large scale and high-resolution modeling approach (Maslowski & Walczowski, 2002)
Simulated water and heat cycles of the Baltic Sea using a 3D coupled atmosphere–ice–ocean model (Meier & Döscher, 2002)
The fragile climatological niche of the Baltic Sea (Stipa & Vepsäläinen, 2002)
Surface radiant and energy flux densities inferred from satellite data for the BALTEX watershed (Berger, 2002)
Rain observations with a vertically looking Micro Rain Radar (MRR) (Peters et al. 2002)
The BALTIMOS (BALTEX Integrated Model System) field experiments: A comprehensive atmospheric boundary layer data set for model validation over the open and ice-covered Baltic Sea (Brümmer et al. 2002)
Area averaging of land surface–atmosphere fluxes in NOPEX: challenges, results and perspectives (Gryning et al. 2002)
Inter-annual variability of Baltic Sea water balance components and sea level (Malinin et al. 2002)
Water, heat and salt exchange between the deep basins of the Baltic Sea (Lehmann & Hinrichsen, 2002)
Energy and water balance of the Baltic Sea derived from merchant ship observations (Lindau, 2002)
Precipitation fields over the Baltic Sea derived from ship rain gauge measurements on merchant ships (Clemens & Bumke, 2002)
The snow cover characteristics of northern Eurasia and their relationship to climatic parameters (Kitaev et al. 2002)
Long-term changes of the river runoff in Latvia (Klavins et al. 2002)
Snow water equivalent variability and forecast in Lithuania (Rimkus & Stankunavichius, 2002)
Relationship between atmospheric circulation indices and climate variability in Estonia (Tomingas, 2002)
Small-scale variability of the wind field over a typical Scandinavian lake (Venäläinen et al. 2003)
Primary particulate matter emissions and the Finnish climate strategy (Karvosenoja & Johansson, 2003)
Droughts and rainfall in south-eastern Finland since AD 874, inferred from Scots pine ring-widths (Helama & Lindholm, 2003)
Estimation of different forest-related contributions to the radiative balance using observations in southern Finland (Kurtén et al. 2003)
Long-term measurements of surface fluxes above a Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, southern Finland, 1996–2001 (Suni et al. 2003)
Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station — characterization of aerosol radiative parameters (Jennings et al. 2003)
Field measurements of atmosphere–biosphere interactions in a Danish beech forest (Pilegaard et al. 2003)
Atmospheric trace gas and aerosol particle concentration measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland 1992–2001 (Ruuskanen et al. 2003)
A decade of trace gas measurements using DOAS in Finnish Lapland (Virkkula et al. 2003)
Overview of the atmospheric research activities and results at Pallas GAW station (Hatakka et al. 2003)
Influence of air mass source sector on variations in CO2 mixing ratio at a boreal site in northern Finland (Aalto et al. 2003)
Comparison of new particle formation events at two locations in northern Finland (Komppula et al. 2003)
On the concept of condensation sink diameter (Lehtinen et al. 2003)
A cloud microphysics model including trace gas condensation and sulfate chemistry (Kokkola et al. 2003)
Ozone flux measurements over a Scots pine forest using eddy covariance method: performance evaluation and comparison with flux-profile method (Keronen et al. 2003)
Measuring shoot-level NOx flux in field conditions: the role of blank chambers (Raivonen et al. 2003)
Aerosols in boreal forest: wintertime relations between formation events and bio-geo-chemical activity (Kulmala et al. 2004)
Meteorological evaluation of a severe air pollution episode in Helsinki on 27–29 December 1995 (Pohjola et al. 2004)
FINSKEN: a framework for developing consistent global change scenarios for Finland in the 21st century (Carter et al. 2004)
Defining alternative national-scale socio-economic and technological futures up to 2100: SRES scenarios for the case of Finland (Kaivo-oja et al. 2004)
Climate change projections for Finland during the 21st century (Jylhä et al. 2004)
Scenarios for sea level on the Finnish coast (Johansson et al. 2004)
Trends and scenarios of ground-level ozone concentrations in Finland (Laurila et al. 2004)
Sulphur and nitrogen oxides emissions in Europe and deposition in Finland during the 21st century (Syri et al. 2004)
Soil CO2 efflux from a podzolic forest soil before and after forest clear-cutting and site preparation (Pumpanen et al. 2004)
Hydraulic aspects of environmental flood management in boreal conditions (Helmiö & Järvelä, 2004)
Age-dependent climate sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris L. in the central Scandinavian Mountains (Linderholm & Linderholm, 2004)
Daytime temperature sum — a new thermal variable describing growing season characteristics and explaining evapotranspiration (Solantie, 2004)
Composition and origins of aerosol during a high PM10 episode in Finland (Tervahattu et al. 2004)
Patterns of coherent dynamics within and between lake districts at local to intercontinental scales (Magnuson et al. 2004)
Atmospheric circulation and its impact on ice phenology in Scandinavia (Blenckner et al. 2004)
The effect of climate and landuse on TOC concentrations and loads in Finnish rivers (Arvola et al. 2004)
The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter characteristics of Windermere (UK) and Pääjärvi (Finland) (George et al. 2004)
Reflection of the changes of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index and the Gulf Stream Position Index in the hydrology and phytoplankton of Võrtsjärv, a large, shallow lake in Estonia (Nõges, 2004)
Effects of an extreme precipitation event on water chemistry and phytoplankton in the Swedish Lake Mälaren (Weyhenmeyer et al. 2004)
Potential springtime greenhouse gas emissions from a small southern boreal lake (Keihäsjärvi, Finland) (Huttunen et al. 2004)
Meteorological and climatological factors affecting transport and deposition of nitrogen compounds over the Baltic Sea (Hongisto & Joffre, 2005)
Climate driven changes in the spawning of roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) and bream (Abramis brama (L.)) in the Estonian part of the Narva River basin (Nõges & Järvet, 2005)
On the existence of neutral atmospheric clusters (Kulmala et al. 2005)
Wind wave statistics in Tallinn Bay (Soomere, 2005)
Climatic turning points and regime shifts in the Baltic Sea region: the Baltic winter index (WIBIX) 1659–2002 (Hagen & Feistel, 2005)
Productivity of boreal forests in relation to climate and vegetation zones (Solantie, 2005)
Feedback processes between climate, surface and vegetation at the northern climatological tree-line (Finnish Lapland) (Vajda & Venäläinen, 2005)
Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) (Hari & Kulmala, 2005)
Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland (Dal Maso et al. 2005)
Evaluation of an automatic algorithm for fitting the particle number size distributions (Hussein et al. 2005)
Annual and size dependent variation of growth rates and ion concentrations in boreal forest (Hirsikko et al. 2005)
Organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from a Finnish coniferous forest (Anttila et al. 2005)
Physico-chemical characterization and mass closure of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in Hyytiälä, Finland (Saarikoski et al. 2005)
Wintertime CO2 evolution from a boreal forest ecosystem (Ilvesniemi et al. 2005)
On-line PTR-MS measurements of atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a European boreal forest ecosystem (Rinne et al. 2005)
Research Unit of Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Atmospheric Composition and Climate Change: overview of recent results (Kulmala et al. 2005)
Probability of nucleation events and aerosol particle concentration in different air mass types arriving at Hyytiälä, southern Finland, based on back trajectories analysis (Sogacheva et al. 2005)
Seasonal variations of trace gases, meteorological parameters, and formation of aerosols in boreal forests (Lyubovtseva et al. 2005)
Effect of ammonium bisulphate formation on atmospheric water-sulphuric acid-ammonia nucleation (Anttila et al. 2005)
A combined photochemistry/aerosol dynamics model: model development and a study of new particle formation (Grini et al. 2005)
Design and performance characteristics of a condensation particle counter UF-02proto (Mordas et al. 2005)
Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and sensible and latent heat fluxes during a full year in a boreal pine forest trunk-space (Launiainen et al. 2005)
Methane fluxes at the sediment–water interface in some boreal lakes and reservoirs (Huttunen et al. 2006)
Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea (Dailidiene et al. 2006)
Past and future changes in sea level near the Estonian coast in relation to changes in wind climate (Suursaar et al. 2006)
Cyclone Gudrun in January 2005 and modelling its hydrodynamic consequences in the Estonian coastal waters (Suursaar et al. 2006)
Trends in sea ice conditions in the Baltic Sea near the Estonian coast during the period 1949/1950–2003/2004 and their relationships to large-scale atmospheric circulation (Jaagus, 2006)
Post-glacial sedimentation rate and patterns in six lakes of the Kokemäenjoki upper watercourse, Finland (Valpola & Ojala, 2006)
Monitoring of black carbon and size-segregated particle number concentrations at 9-m and 65-m distances from a major road in Helsinki (Pakkanen et al. 2006)
Spring in the boreal environment: observations on pre- and post-melt energy and CO2 fluxes in two central Siberian ecosystems (Arneth et al. 2006)
Regional climate simulations for the Barents Sea region (Keup-Thiel et al. 2006)
Determination of forest growth trends in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia): combination of tree-ring analysis and remote sensing data (Lopatin et al. 2006)
Life cycle assessment of Finnish cultivated rainbow trout (Grönroos et al. 2006)
High soil carbon efflux rates in several ecosystems in southern Sweden (Tagesson & Lindrot, 2007)
Methods for determining emission factors for the use of peat and peatlands — flux measurements and modelling (Alm et al. 2007)
Annual CO2 and CH4 fluxes of pristine boreal mires as a background for the lifecycle analyses of peat energy (Saarnio et al. 2007)
Heterotrophic soil respiration in forestry-drained peatlands (Minkkinen at al., 2007)
Tree stand volume as a scalar for methane fluxes in forestry-drained peatlands in Finland (Minkkinen at al., 2007)
Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated and abandoned organic croplands in Finland (Maljanen et al. 2007)
Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland (Lohila et al. 2007)
Soil greenhouse gas emissions from afforested organic soil croplands and cutaway peatlands (Mäkiranta et al. 2007)
Carbon gas exchange of a re-vegetated cut-away peatland five decades after abandonment (Yli-Petäys et al. 2007)
Emission factors and their uncertainty for the exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O in Finnish managed peatlands (Alm et al. 2007)
Greenhouse impact due to different peat fuel utilisation chains in Finland — a life-cycle approach (Kirkinen et al. 2007)
Peat-based emissions in Finland’s national greenhouse gas inventory (Lapveteläinen et al. 2007)
A wide-range multi-channel Air Ion Spectrometer (Mirme et al. 2007)
The 222Rn activity concentration, external radiation dose and air ion production rates in a boreal forest in Finland between March 2000 and June 2006 (Hirsikko et al. 2007)
Hot-air balloon as a platform for boundary layer profile measurements during particle formation (Laakso et al. 2007)
Road-side measurements of aerosol and ion number size distributions: a comparison with remote site measurements (Tiitta et al. 2007)
Size distributions of atmospheric ions in the Baltic Sea region (Komppula et al. 2007)
Size distributions of atmospheric ions inside clouds and in cloud-free air at a remote continental site (Lihavainen et al. 2007)
Nucleation events detected at the high altitude site of the Puy de Dôme Research Station, France (Venzac et al. 2007)
Modal structure of the atmospheric aerosol particle size spectrum for nucleation burst days in Estonia (Pugatsova et al. 2007)
Ion and particle number concentrations and size distributions along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Vartiainen et al. 2007)
Charged particle size distributions and analysis of particle formation events at the Finnish Antarctic research station Aboa (Virkkula et al. 2007)
Simulating aerosol nucleation bursts in a coniferous forest (Tammet & Kulmala, 2007)
Quantum chemical studies of hydrate formation of H2SO4 and HSO4– (Kurtén et al. 2007)
Validation of the SNOWPACK model in five different snow zones in Finland (Rasmus et al. 2007)
Antecedent snow conditions affect water levels and plant biomass of a fen in the southern boreal forest: results from an experiment using mesocosms (Benoy et al. 2007)
Holocene vegetation history of the Riisitunturi fell area in NE Finland, traced by the palynostratigraphy of two disgenic upland lakes (Huttunen, 2007)
FinROSE — middle atmospheric chemistry transport model (Damski et al. 2007)
The energy balance and vertical thermal structure of two small boreal lakes in summer (Elo, 2007)
Environmental changes in SE Estonia during the last 700 years (Saarse & Niinemets, 2007)
Thermally driven mesoscale flows — simulations and measurements (Törnblom et al. 2007)
Meteorological features behind spring runoff formation in the Nemunas River (Stankunavicius et al. 2007)
Impact of climate change on Estonian coastal and inland wetlands — a summary with new results (Kont et al. 2007)
Nitrogen pools and C:N ratios in well-drained Nordic forest soils related to climate and soil texture (Callesen et al. 2007)
Timing of plant phenophases in Finnish Lapland in 1997–2006 (Pudas et al. 2008)
Climatological characteristics of summer precipitation in Helsinki during the period 1951–2000 (Kilpeläinen et al. 2008)
Aerosol particle formation events at two Siberian stations inside the boreal forest (Dal Maso et al. 2008)
Aerosol components and types in the Baltic Sea region (Reinart et al. 2008)
The effects of fluctuating climatic conditions and weather events on nutrient dynamics in a narrow mosaic riparian peatland (Kull et al. 2008)
The relationship between fire activity and fire weather indices at different stages of the growing season in Finland (Tanskanen & Venäläinen, 2008)
Long-term trends in spring phenology in a boreal forest in central Finland (Lappalainen et al. 2008)
Development of Finnish peatland area and carbon storage 1950–2000 (Turunen, 2008)
Snow accumulation on evergreen needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved trees (Suzuki et al. 2008)
Boreal forest leaf area index from optical satellite images: model simulations and empirical analyses using data from central Finland (Stenberg et al. 2008)
Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon in stand throughfall and percolation water in 12 boreal coniferous stands on mineral soils in Finland (Lindroos et al. 2008)
Response of boreal forest vegetation to the fertility status of the organic layer along a climatic gradient (Salemaa et al. 2008)
Water-extractable organic compounds in different components of the litter layer of boreal coniferous forest soils along a climatic gradient (Hilli et al. 2008)
The costs of monitoring changes in forest soil carbon stocks (Mäkipää et al. 2008)
Momentum fluxes and wind gradients in the marine boundary layer — a multi-platform study (Högström et al. 2008)
The response of phytoplankton to increased temperature in the Loviisa archipelago, Gulf of Finland (Ilus & Keskitalo, 2008)
Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia) (Lopatin et al. 2008)
Sensitivity of Baltic Sea deep water salinity and oxygen concentration to variations in physical forcing (Gustafsson & Omstedt, 2009)
Regionalisation of the precipitation pattern in the Baltic Sea drainage basin and its dependence on large-scale atmospheric circulation (Jaagus, 2009)
Diurnal variability of precipitable water in the Baltic region, impact on transmittance of the direct solar radiation (Jakobson et al. 2009)
Water budget in the Baltic Sea drainage basin: Evaluation of simulated fluxes in a regional climate model (Lind & Kjellström, 2009)
An enhanced sea-ice thermodynamic model applied to the Baltic Sea (Tedesco et al. 2009)
Is greenhouse gas forcing a plausible explanation for the observed warming in the Baltic Sea catchment area? (Bhend & von Storch, 2009)
Detecting changes in winter seasons in Latvia: the role of arctic air masses (Draveniece, 2009)
Future trends and variability of the hydrological cycle in different IPCC SRES emission scenarios — a case study for the Baltic Sea region (Jacob & Lorenz, 2009)
Changes in the water budget in the Baltic Sea drainage basin in future warmer climates as simulated by the regional climate model RCA3 (Kjellström & Lind, 2009)
Long-term temperature and salinity records from the Baltic Sea transition zone (Madsen & Højerslev, 2009)
Simulated crop yield — an indicator of climate variability (Saue & Kadaja, 2009)
Changes in frequency of Baltic Sea cyclones and their relationships with NAO and climate in Estonia (Sepp, 2009)
Highlights of the physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland reflecting potential climate changes (Soomere et al. 2009)
Recurrence of heavy precipitation, dry spells and deep snow cover in Finland based on observations (Venäläinen et al. 2009)
Simulating river flow to the Baltic Sea from climate simulations over the past millennium (Graham et al. 2009)
Storm surges in the Odra mouth area during the 1997–2006 decade (Kowalewska-Kalkowska & Wisniewski, 2009)
Adaptation to floods and droughts in the Baltic Sea basin under climate change (Kundzewicz, 2009)
Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes (Gryning et al. 2009)
Dependence of upwelling-mediated nutrient transport on wind forcing, bottom topography and stratification in the Gulf of Finland: Model experiments (Laanemets et al. 2009)
Atmospheric input of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea basin: present situation, variability due to meteorology and impact of climate change (Langner et al. 2009)
Atmospheric CO2 variation over the Baltic Sea and the impact on air–sea exchange (Rutgersson et al. 2009)
Towards policies and adaptation strategies to climate change in the Baltic Sea region — outputs of the ASTRA project (Leal Filho & Mannke, 2009)
Upwelling characteristics derived from satellite sea surface temperature data in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea (Uiboupin & Laanemets, 2009)
The effect of temperature and PAR on the annual photosynthetic production of Scots pine in northern Finland during 1906–2002 (Hari & Nöjd, 2009)
Temporal variations in surface water CO2 concentration in a boreal humic lake based on high-frequency measurements (Huotari et al. 2009)
The urban measurement station SMEAR III: Continuous monitoring of air pollution and surface–atmosphere interactions in Helsinki, Finland (Järvi et al. 2009)
Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in two coastal wetlands in the northeastern Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea (Liikanen et al. 2009)
Temperature and humidity characteristics of two willow stands, a peaty meadow and a drained pasture and their impact on landscape functioning (Brom & Pokorny, 2009)
A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change (Hari et al. 2009)
Smart-SMEAR: on-line data exploration and visualization tool for SMEAR stations (Junninen et al. 2009)
Measurements of humidified particle number size distributions in a Finnish boreal forest: derivation of hygroscopic particle growth factors (Birmili et al. 2009)
A comparison of new particle formation events in the boundary layer at three different sites in Europe (Jaatinen et al. 2009)
Comparison of net CO2 fluxes measured with open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers in an urban complex environment (Järvi et al. 2009)
Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles and cloud-droplet activation during the Second Pallas Cloud Experiment (Second PaCE) (Kivekäs et al. 2009)
Snow scavenging of ultrafine particles: field measurements and parameterization (Kyrö et al. 2009)
Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for measuring ultrafine aerosol particles (Laitinen et al. 2009)
Ozone concentration variations observed in northern Finland in relation to photochemical, transport and cloud processes (Laurila et al. 2009)
Ion-UHMA: a model for simulating the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles (Leppä et al. 2009)
Overview of the research activities and results at Puijo semi-urban measurement station (Leskinen et al. 2009)
Long-term field measurements of charged and neutral clusters using Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) (Manninen et al. 2009)
eucalyptol the cause of nocturnal events observed in Australia? (Ortega et al. 2009)
Connection between new particle formation and sulphuric acid at Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) including the influence of organic compounds (Paasonen et al. 2009)
Analysis of organic compounds in ambient aerosols collected with the particle-into-liquid sampler (Parshintsev et al. 2009)
Observations of aerosol–cloud interactions at the Puijo semi-urban measurement station (Portin et al. 2009)
The evolution of nucleation- and Aitken-mode particle compositions in a boreal forest environment during clean and pollution-affected new-particle formation events (Vaattovaara et al. 2009)
Characteristics of new particle formation events and cluster ions at K-puszta, Hungary (Yli-Juuti et al. 2009)
Carbon dioxide exchange on a northern boreal fen (Aurela et al. 2009)
Spring recovery of photosynthesis and atmospheric particle formation (Dal Maso et al. 2009)
Annual variations of atmospheric VOC concentrations in a boreal forest (Hakola et al. 2009)
Long-term measurements of the carbon balance of a boreal Scots pine dominated forest ecosystem (Ilvesniemi et al. 2009)
Pressure responses of portable CO2 concentration sensors (Kulmala et al. 2009)
CO2 exchange and component CO2 fluxes of a boreal Scots pine forest (Kolari et al. 2009)
Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from the Eurasian taiga: current knowledge and future directions (Rinne et al. 2009)
Synoptic circulation and its influence on spring and summer surface ozone concentrations in southern Sweden (Tang et al. 2009)
Emissions of volatile halogenated compounds from a meadow in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea (Valtanen et al. 2009)
Evaluating the diffuse attenuation coefficient of dry snow by using an artificial light source (Rasmus & Huttunen, 2009)
Prolongation of soil frost resulting from reduced snow cover increases nitrous oxide emissions from boreal forest soil (Maljanen et al. 2010)
Holocene groundwater table fluctuations in a small perched aquifer inferred from sediment record of Kankaanjärvi, SW Finland (Kaakinen et al. 2010)
An offline study of the impact of lakes on the performance of the ECMWF surface scheme (Dutra et al. 2010)
The impact of lakes on the European climate as simulated by a regional climate model (Samuelsson et al. 2010)
A study on effects of lake temperature and ice cover in HIRLAM (Eerola et al. 2010)
Simulation of temperate freezing lakes by one-dimensional lake models: performance assessment for interactive coupling with regional climate models (Martynov et al. 2010)
External data for lake parameterization in Numerical Weather Prediction and climate modeling (Kourzenova, 2010)
Deriving an effective lake depth from satellite lake surface temperature data: a feasibility study with MODIS data (Balsamo et al. 2010)
First steps of a Lake Model Intercomparison Project: LakeMIP (Stepanenko et al. 2010)
A study of the large-scale climatic effects of a possible disappearance of high-latitude inland water surfaces during the 21st century (Krinner & Boike, 2010)
Implementation of the lake parameterisation scheme FLake into the numerical weather prediction model COSMO (Mironov et al. 2010)
Coupling of the FLake model to the Surfex externalized surface model (Salgado & Le Moigne, 2010)
Applicability of the FLake model to Lake Balaton (Vörös et al. 2010)
Impact of warmer climate on Lake Geneva water-temperature profiles (Perroud & Goyette, 2010)
Modeling the impact of global warming on water temperature and seasonal mixing regimes in small temperate lakes (Kirillin, 2010)
Depth induced breaking of wind generated surface gravity waves in Estonian coastal waters (Alari & Raudsepp, 2010)
Vertical and horizontal variation of carbon pools and fluxes in soil profile of wet southern taiga in European Russia (Šantrůčková et al. 2010)
Climate effects on zooplankton biomasses in a coastal Baltic Sea area (Hansson et al. 2010)
Validation of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the Gulf of Finland (Myrberg et al. 2010)
Coupling the 1-D lake model FLake to the community land-surface model JULES (Rooney & Jones, 2010)
Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on climate in Latvia (Klavins & Rodinov, 2010)
Quality assurance in the FMI Doppler Weather Radar Network (Saltikoff et al. 2010)
Geographical origin of aerosol particles observed during the LAPBIAT measurement campaign in spring 2003 in Finnish Lapland (Kaasik et al. 2011)
Occurrence of synoptic flaw leads of sea ice in the Gulf of Finland (Pärn & Haapala, 2011)
Characteristics and variability of the vertical thermohaline structure in the Gulf of Finland in summer (Liblik & Lips, 2011)
Coastal erosion processes in the eastern Gulf of Finland and their links with geological and hydrometeorological factors (Ryabchuk et al. 2011)
Wind forced currents over the shallow Naissaar Bank in the Gulf of Finland (Lilover et al. 2011)
Changes in phytoplankton communities along a north–south gradient in the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 2008 (Jaanus et al. 2011)
Radiative transfer simulations link boreal forest structure and shortwave albedo (Rautiainen et al. 2011)
Land use, geomorphology and climate as environmental determinants of emergent aquatic macrophytes in boreal catchments (Alahuhta et al. 2011)
Possible effects of climate change on potato crops in Estonia (Saue & Kadaja, 2011)
Below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles by snow at an urban site in Finland (Paramonov et al. 2011)
land ecosystem–atmosphere processes study (iLEAPS) assessment of global observational networks (Guenther et al. 2011)
On measurements of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases in Siberia and future research needs (Kulmala et al. 2011)
Remote sensing based estimates of surface wetness conditions and growing degree days over northern Alberta, Canada (Akther & Hassan, 2011)
Northward density shift of bird species in boreal protected areas due to climate change (Virkkala & Rajasärkkä, 2011)
Eco-energy and urbanisation: messages from birds about wind turbine proliferation (Fox, 2011)
Do long-distance migrants use temperature variations along the migration route in Europe to adjust the timing of their spring arrival? (Halkka et al. 2011)
Using first arrival dates to infer bird migration phenology (Lindén, 2011)
Wave hindcast statistics in the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea (Tuomi et al. 2011)
Soil drought increases atmospheric fine particle capture efficiency of Norway spruce (Räsänen et al. 2012)
Climate change and future overwintering conditions of horticultural woody-plants in Finland (Laapas et al. 2012)
Seasonal changes in canopy leaf area index and MODIS vegetation products for a boreal forest site in central Finland (Rautiainen et al. 2012)
Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, chloride and base cations at Ähtäri and Hyytiälä, Finland (Ruoho-Airola, 2012)
Atlantic salmon abundance and size track climate regimes in the Baltic Sea (Huusko & Hyvärinen, 2012)
Variability in temperature, precipitation and river discharge in the Baltic States (Kriauciuniene et al. 2012)
Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact (Silvan et al. 2012)
Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas (Stankūnavičius et al. 2012)
Climatology of cyclones with a southern origin, and their influence on air temperature and precipitation in Estonia (Mändla et al. 2012)
Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff (Hänninen & Vuorinen, 2012)
Summer concentrations of NMHCs in ambient air of the Arctic and Antarctic (Hellén et al. 2012)
Collapse and recovery of the European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) population in a small boreal lake — an early warning of the consequences of climate change (Keskinen et al. 2012)

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Papers of Climate of the Past

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 27, 2016

All the papers in journal Climate of the Past between years 2005 and 2013 are listed below.

Quantifying the effect of vegetation dynamics on the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (Jahn, 2005)
A timescale analysis of the Northern Hemisphere temperature response to volcanic and solar forcing (Weber, 2005)
Seasonal mean pressure reconstruction for the North Atlantic (1750 1850) based on early marine data (Gallego, 2005)
Paleoclimatic reconstructions in western Canada from boreholetemperature logs: surface air temperature forcing and groundwater flow (Majorowicz, 2006)
Synoptic climate change as a driver of late Quaternary glaciations in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (Rother, 2006)
Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes) (Ginot, 2006)
Effect of land albedo, CO2, orography, and oceanic heat transport on extreme climates (Romanova, 2006)
Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume (Ruddiman, 2006)
Simulating low frequency changes in atmospheric CO2 during the last 740 000 years (Köhler, 2006)
Coupled climate model simulation of Holocene cooling events: oceanic feedback amplifies solar forcing (Renssen, 2006)
On the importance of initial conditions for simulations of the Mid-Holocene climate (Renssen, 2006)
The origin of the European “Medieval Warm Period” (Goosse, 2006)
Social vulnerability to climate in the “Little Ice Age”: an example from Central Europe in the early 1770s (Pfister, 2006)
Equatorial insolation: from precession harmonics to eccentricity frequencies (Berger, 2006)
A guide for digitising manuscript climate data (Brönnimann, 2006)
Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change (Masson-Delmotte, 2006)
Inter-hemispheric linkages in climate change: paleo-perspectives for future climate change (Shulmeister, 2006)
Climate-human-environment interactions: resolving our past (Dearing, 2006)
Dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere, climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration during interglacials: a comparison between Eemian and Holocene (Schurgers, 2006)
Comparing transient, accelerated, and equilibrium simulations of the last 30 000 years with the GENIE-1 model (Lunt, 2006)
Exposure dating of Late Glacial and pre-LGM moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern/Central Chile (~31° S) (Zech, 2007)
Numerical reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets through the last glacial-interglacial cycle (Charbit, 2007)
Atmospheric multidecadal variations in the North Atlantic realm: proxy data, observations, and atmospheric circulation model studies (Grosfeld, 2007)
The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations (Weber, 2007)
On the variability of return periods of European winter precipitation extremes over the last three centuries (Pauling, 2007)
Linking glacial and future climates through an ensemble of GCM simulations (Hargreaves, 2007)
Summer temperature trend over the past two millennia using air content in Himalayan ice (Hou, 2007)
Low-frequency oscillations of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation in a coupled climate model (Schulz, 2007)
Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America (Loehle, 2007)
Multiproxy records of climate variability for Kamchatka for the past 400 years (Solomina, 2007)
The DO-climate events are probably noise induced: statistical investigation of the claimed 1470 years cycle (Ditlevsen, 2007)
Quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release (Zeng, 2007)
Change in ice rheology during climate variations – implications for ice flow modelling and dating of the EPICA Dome C core (Durand, 2007)
Simulating sub-Milankovitch climate variations associated with vegetation dynamics (Tuenter, 2007)
Northern hemisphere winter storm tracks of the Eemian interglacial and the last glacial inception (Kaspar, 2007)
Agricultural sustainability in the semi-arid Near East (Hole, 2007)
Climate of the Last Glacial Maximum: sensitivity studies and model-data comparison with the LOVECLIM coupled model (Roche, 2007)
Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe (Seppä, 2007)
Climatic changes in the Urals over the past millennium – an analysis of geothermal and meteorological data (Demezhko, 2007)
1-D-ice flow modelling at EPICA Dome C and Dome Fuji, East Antarctica (Parrenin, 2007)
Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 1: experiments and large-scale features (Braconnot, 2007)
Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 2: feedbacks with emphasis on the location of the ITCZ and mid- and high latitudes heat budget (Braconnot, 2007)
Selection of borehole temperature depth profiles for regional climate reconstructions (Chouinard, 2007)
Thermal log analysis for recognition of ground surface temperature change and water movements (Verdoya, 2007)
Synchronization of ice core records via atmospheric gases (Blunier, 2007)
How cold was Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum? A synthesis of the progress achieved since the first PMIP model-data comparison (Ramstein, 2007)
Anomalous flow below 2700 m in the EPICA Dome C ice core detected using δ18O of atmospheric oxygen measurements (Dreyfus, 2007)
Historical droughts in Mediterranean regions during the last 500 years: a data/model approach (Brewer, 2007)
Synchronisation of the EDML and EDC ice cores for the last 52 kyr by volcanic signature matching (Severi, 2007)
Modelling the Early Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheets: role of ice shelves and influence of ice-dammed lakes (Peyaud, 2007)
Application of sediment core modelling to interpreting the glacial-interglacial record of Southern Ocean silica cycling (Ridgwell, 2007)
On the verification of climate reconstructions (Bürger, 2007)
Increased aeolian activity during humidity shifts as recorded in a raised bog in south-west Sweden during the past 1700 years (de Jong, 2007)
Climatic Conditions for modelling the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout the ice age cycle (Abe-Ouchi, 2007)
The LGM surface climate and atmospheric circulation over East Asia and the North Pacific in the PMIP2 coupled model simulations (Yanase, 2007)
Repeated temperature logs from Czech, Slovenian and Portuguese borehole climate observatories (Šafanda, 2007)
Detecting human impacts on the flora, fauna, and summer monsoon of Pleistocene Australia (Miller, 2007)
“EDML1”: a chronology for the EPICA deep ice core from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, over the last 150 000 years (Ruth, 2007)
The EDC3 chronology for the EPICA Dome C ice core (Parrenin, 2007)
Mid-Holocene climate change in Europe: a data-model comparison (Brewer, 2007)
Surface thermal perturbations of the recent past at low latitudes – inferences based on borehole temperature data from Eastern Brazil (Hamza, 2007)
New constraints on the gas age-ice age difference along the EPICA ice cores, 0-50 kyr (Loulergue, 2007)
Direct north-south synchronization of abrupt climate change record in ice cores using Beryllium 10 (Raisbeck, 2007)
Tropical cooling and the onset of North American glaciation (Huybers, 2007)
Spatial distribution of Pleistocene/Holocene warming amplitudes in Northern Eurasia inferred from geothermal data (Demezhko, 2007)
The origin of the 1500-year climate cycles in Holocene North-Atlantic records (Debret, 2007)
Ice thinning, upstream advection, and non-climatic biases for the upper 89% of the EDML ice core from a nested model of the Antarctic ice sheet (Huybrechts, 2007)
Millennial temperature reconstruction intercomparison and evaluation (Juckes, 2007)
Variations in air and ground temperature and the POM-SAT model: results from the Northern Hemisphere (Harris, 2007)
LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating (Zech, 2007)
Thermal signal propagation in soils in Romania: conductive and non-conductive processes (Demetrescu, 2007)
Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices (Sewall, 2007)
How unusual was autumn 2006 in Europe? (van Oldenborgh, 2007)
Non-linear statistical downscaling of present and LGM precipitation and temperatures over Europe (Vrac, 2007)
Information on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century (Goosse, 2007)
Changes in C3/C4 vegetation in the continental interior of the Central Himalayas associated with monsoonal paleoclimatic changes during the last 600 kyr (Mampuku, 2008)
On the quality of climate proxies derived from newspaper reports – a case study (Gallego, 2008)
Precipitation variations of Longxi, northeast margin of Tibetan Plateau since AD 960 and their relationship with solar activity (Tan, 2008)
Strong summer monsoon during the cool MIS-13 (Yin, 2008)
South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event (Ljung, 2008)
A 60 000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology (Svensson, 2008)
Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models (Wang, 2008)
Maintenance of polar stratospheric clouds in a moist stratosphere (Kirk-Davidoff, 2008)
The Eurasian ice sheet reinforces the East Asian summer monsoon during the interglacial 500 000 years ago (Yin, 2008)
A bi-proxy reconstruction of Fontainebleau (France) growing season temperature from A.D. 1596 to 2000 (Etien, 2008)
Thirty thousand years of vegetation development and climate change in Angola (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1078) (Dupont, 2008)
Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45 000 years (Franke, 2008)
East Asian Monsoon and paleoclimatic data analysis: a vegetation point of view (Guiot, 2008)
Shifts in early spring wind regime in North-East Europe (1955–2007) (Keevallik, 2008)
A major reorganization of Asian climate by the early Miocene (Guo, 2008)
Precipitation record since AD 1600 from ice cores on the central Tibetan Plateau (Yao, 2008)
Uniform climate development between the subtropical and subpolar Northeast Atlantic across marine isotope stage 11 (Helmke, 2008)
A modeling sensitivity study of the influence of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on neodymium isotopic composition at the Last Glacial Maximum (Arsouze, 2008)
Amplification of obliquity forcing through mean annual and seasonal atmospheric feedbacks (Lee, 2008)
Anticyclonic atmospheric circulation as an analogue for the warm and dry mid-Holocene summer climate in central Scandinavia (Antonsson, 2008)
Forced and internal modes of variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (Liu, 2008)
Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia Part 1: Numerical modelling and validation methods (Allen, 2008)
Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia Part 2: A dataset of LGM precipitation/temperature relations derived from degree-day modelling of palaeo glaciers (Allen, 2008)
Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia Part 3: Comparison with previous climate reconstructions (Allen, 2008)
Monsoon response to changes in Earth’s orbital parameters: comparisons between simulations of the Eemian and of the Holocene (Braconnot, 2008)
Revisiting the absolute calibration of the Greenland ice-core age-scales (Skinner, 2008)
Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences: a case study in East China (Domroes, 2008)
The carbon cycle during the Mid Pleistocene Transition: the Southern Ocean Decoupling Hypothesis (Köhler, 2008)
Mid-depth South Atlantic Ocean circulation and chemical stratification during MIS-10 to 12: implications for atmospheric CO2 (Dickson, 2008)
The Southern Hemisphere at glacial terminations: insights from the Dome C ice core (Röthlisberger, 2008)
Winter temperatures in the second half of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula (Bullón, 2008)
Western Europe is warming much faster than expected (van Oldenborgh, 2009)
Recent climate change in Japan – spatial and temporal characteristics of trends of temperature (Schaefer, 2009)
Strong asymmetry of hemispheric climates during MIS-13 inferred from correlating China loess and Antarctica ice records (Guo, 2009)
How did Marine Isotope Stage 3 and Last Glacial Maximum climates differ? – Perspectives from equilibrium simulations (van Meerbeeck, 2009)
Millennial-scale climatic variability between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago in SW Europe: evidence from a NW Iberian margin pollen sequence (Desprat, 2009)
Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia (Müller, 2009)
Exploring the climatic impact of the continental vegetation on the Mezosoic atmospheric CO2 and climate history (Donnadieu, 2009)
Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling (González-Rouco, 2009)
Variability of summer precipitation over Eastern China during the last millennium (Shen, 2009)
Comment on “Aerosol radiative forcing and climate sensitivity deduced from the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition”, by P. Chylek and U. Lohmann, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008 (Hargreaves, 2009)
Climate reconstruction from pollen and δ13C records using inverse vegetation modeling – Implication for past and future climates (Hatté, 2009)
Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial times in the past 470 kyr (Rousseau, 2009)
Two millennia of climate variability in the Central Mediterranean (Taricco, 2009)
Impacts of land surface properties and atmospheric CO2 on the Last Glacial Maximum climate: a factor separation analysis (Henrot, 2009)
Late Quaternary vegetation-climate feedbacks (Claussen, 2009)
Two-dimensional reconstruction of past sea level (1950-2003) from tide gauge data and an Ocean General Circulation Model (Llovel, 2009)
Individual and combined effects of ice sheets and precession on MIS-13 climate (Yin, 2009)
Mechanisms and time scales of glacial inception simulated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (Calov, 2009)
The influence of the circulation on surface temperature and precipitation patterns over Europe (Jones, 2009)
Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates (Sarnthein, 2009)
Late Glacial and Holocene changes in vegetation cover and climate in southern Siberia derived from a 15 kyr long pollen record from Lake Kotokel (Tarasov, 2009)
Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates (Prentice, 2009)
High resolution cyclostratigraphy of the early Eocene – new insights into the origin of the Cenozoic cooling trend (Westerhold, 2009)
Investigating the evolution of major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the last glacial-interglacial cycle (Bonelli, 2009)
Relationship between Holocene climate variations over southern Greenland and eastern Baffin Island and synoptic circulation pattern (Fréchette, 2009)
Uncertainties in modelling CH4 emissions from northern wetlands in glacial climates: effect of hydrological model and CH4 model structure (Berrittella, 2009)
Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context (Chepstow-Lusty, 2009)
The 15th century Arctic warming in coupled model simulations with data assimilation (Crespin, 2009)
Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types (Lebamba, 2009)
Climate and CO2 modulate the C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal in simulated vegetation (Flores, 2009)
Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives (Legrande, 2009)
Modeling sensitivity study of the possible impact of snow and glaciers developing over Tibetan Plateau on Holocene African-Asian summer monsoon climate (Jin, 2009)
Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with a climate model (Li, 2009)
Pleistocene glacial variability as a chaotic response to obliquity forcing (Huybers, 2009)
Changes in atmospheric variability in a glacial climate and the impacts on proxy data: a model intercomparison (Pausata, 2009)
Rapid climatic variability in the west Mediterranean during the last 25 000 years from high resolution pollen data (Combourieu Nebout, 2009)
Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe (Seppä, 2009)
Glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change: a possible “standing volume” effect on deep-ocean carbon sequestration (Skinner, 2009)
Glacial climate sensitivity to different states of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: results from the IPSL model (Kageyama, 2009)
A few prospective ideas on climate reconstruction: from a statistical single proxy approach towards a multi-proxy and dynamical approach (Guiot, 2009)
High resolution climate and vegetation simulations of the Late Pliocene, a model-data comparison over western Europe and the Mediterranean region (Jost, 2009)
Extracting a common high frequency signal from Northern Quebec black spruce tree-rings with a Bayesian hierarchical model (Boreux, 2009)
Terrestrial climate variability and seasonality changes in the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP deduced from marine pollen records (Dormoy, 2009)
Antarctic ice-sheet response to atmospheric CO2 and insolation in the Middle Miocene (Langebroek, 2009)
Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change? (Ngomanda, 2009)
Tree ring-based February-April temperature reconstruction for Changbai Mountain in Northeast China and its implication for East Asian winter monsoon (Zhu, 2009)
Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway) and regional comparisons (Linge, 2009)
The importance of Northern Peatlands in global carbon systems during the Holocene (Wang, 2009)
Quantifying the roles of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry in governing ocean carbon-13 and atmospheric carbon dioxide at the last glacial maximum (Tagliabue, 2009)
Preface “Climate change: from the geological past to the uncertain future – a symposium honouring André Berger” (Crucifix, 2009)
The response of Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to climate change: a minimal model (Meijer, 2009)
Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years ago (Marchant, 2009)
Pliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction (Dowsett, 2009)
Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM (Heinemann, 2009)
On the importance of paleoclimate modelling for improving predictions of future climate change (Hargreaves, 2009)
A unified proxy for ENSO and PDO variability since 1650 (McGregor, 2010)
Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11): analogue for present and future sea-level? (Bowen, 2010)
Climate in continental interior Asia during the longest interglacial of the past 500 000 years: the new MIS 11 records from Lake Baikal, SE Siberia (Prokopenko, 2010)
Reconstructing past atmospheric circulation changes using oxygen isotopes in lake sediments from Sweden (Jonsson, 2010)
High Arabian Sea productivity conditions during MIS 13 – odd monsoon event or intensified overturning circulation at the end of the Mid-Pleistocene transition? (Ziegler, 2010)
Potential analysis reveals changing number of climate states during the last 60 kyr (Livina, 2010)
Limitations of red noise in analysing Dansgaard-Oeschger events (Braun, 2010)
Dendroclimatology in Fennoscandia – from past accomplishments to future potential (Linderholm, 2010)
An introduction to stable water isotopes in climate models: benefits of forward proxy modelling for paleoclimatology (Sturm, 2010)
The MIS 11 – MIS 1 analogy, southern European vegetation, atmospheric methane and the “early anthropogenic hypothesis” (Tzedakis, 2010)
The reconstruction of easterly wind directions for the Eifel region (Central Europe) during the period 40.3–12.9 ka BP (Dietrich, 2010)
Effects of orbital forcing on atmosphere and ocean heat transports in Holocene and Eemian climate simulations with a comprehensive Earth system model (Fischer, 2010)
Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa (Gritti, 2010)
Holocene trends in the foraminifer record from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean (Andersson, 2010)
Contribution of oceanic and vegetation feedbacks to Holocene climate change in monsoonal Asia (Dallmeyer, 2010)
A 70-yr record of oxygen-18 variability in an ice core from the Tanggula Mountains, central Tibetan Plateau (Joswiak, 2010)
Simulation of the last glacial cycle with a coupled climate ice-sheet model of intermediate complexity (Ganopolski, 2010)
Abrupt climate changes of the last deglaciation detected in a Western Mediterranean forest record (Fletcher, 2010)
Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Torfstein, 2010)
Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions (Ammann, 2010)
Vegetation response to the “African Humid Period” termination in Central Cameroon (7° N) – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang (Vincens, 2010)
Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka (Siddall, 2010)
A simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient (Lisiecki, 2010)
Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century (Brohan, 2010)
Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events (Lewis, 2010)
Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period (Capron, 2010)
Detecting instabilities in tree-ring proxy calibration (Visser, 2010)
Millennium-long summer temperature variations in the European Alps as reconstructed from tree rings (Corona, 2010)
Coral Cd/Ca and Mn/Ca records of ENSO variability in the Gulf of California (Carriquiry, 2010)
Comment on “Using multiple observationally-based constraints to estimate climate sensitivity” by J. D. Annan and J. C. Hargreaves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006 (Henriksson, 2010)
The Southern Hemisphere semiannual oscillation and circulation variability during the Mid-Holocene (Ackerley, 2010)
Interhemispheric coupling, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and warm Antarctic interglacials (Holden, 2010)
Influence of solar variability, CO2 and orbital forcing between 1000 and 1850 AD in the IPSLCM4 model (Servonnat, 2010)
Mid-Tertiary paleoenvironments in Thailand: pollen evidence (Sepulchre, 2010)
Characteristics of cold-warm variation in the Hetao region and its surrounding areas in China during the past 5000 years (Li, 2010)
Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks (Gaillard, 2010)
Asian aridification linked to the first step of the Eocene-Oligocene climate Transition (EOT) in obliquity-dominated terrestrial records (Xining Basin, China) (Xiao, 2010)
Clustering climate reconstructions (Bürger, 2010)
Climate change and the demise of Minoan civilization (Tsonis, 2010)
Variations in mid-latitude North Atlantic surface water properties during the mid-Brunhes (MIS 9-14) and their implications for the thermohaline circulation (Voelker, 2010)
A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century (Domínguez-Castro, 2010)
Statistical issues about solar-climate relations (Yiou, 2010)
Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle (Bouttes, 2010)
Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 1: Survey of temperature and precipitation proxy data (Sundqvist, 2010)
Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 2: Model-data comparisons (Zhang, 2010)
Using data assimilation to study extratropical Northern Hemisphere climate over the last millennium (Widmann, 2010)
A synthesis of marine sediment core δ13C data over the last 150 000 years (Oliver, 2010)
Effects of CO2, continental distribution, topography and vegetation changes on the climate at the Middle Miocene: a model study (Henrot, 2010)
Past dynamics of the Australian monsoon: precession, phase and links to the global monsoon concept (Beaufort, 2010)
Mountain uplift and the glaciation of North America – a sensitivity study (Foster, 2010)
Preface “Holocene climate variability over Scandinavia – A special issue originating from a workshop organized by the Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research” (Moberg, 2010)
Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium (Jungclaus, 2010)
A critical look at solar-climate relationships from long temperature series (Legras, 2010)
Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past (Willis, 2010)
Perturbing phytoplankton: response and isotopic fractionation with changing carbonate chemistry in two coccolithophore species (Rickaby, 2010)
Bayesian analysis of rapid climate change during the last glacial using Greenland δ18O data (Peavoy, 2010)
The Impact of the Little Ice Age on Coccolithophores in the Central Mediterranea Sea (Incarbona, 2010)
Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach (Martín-Puertas, 2010)
Warm Nordic Seas delayed glacial inception in Scandinavia (Born, 2010)
A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump (de Boer, 2010)
TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica (Buiron, 2011)
Model-dependence of the CO2 threshold for melting the hard Snowball Earth (Hu, 2011)
Oceanic tracer and proxy time scales revisited (Siberlin, 2011)
Early last glacial maximum in the southern Central Andes reveals northward shift of the westerlies at ~39 ka (Zech, 2011)
Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (Sluijs, 2011)
Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for assessing biogenic silica sample purity in geochemical analyses and palaeoenvironmental research (Swann, 2011)
Sea-surface salinity variations in the northern Caribbean Sea across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (Sepulcre, 2011)
A comparison of climate simulations for the last glacial maximum with three different versions of the ECHAM model and implications for summer-green tree refugia (Arpe, 2011)
The effect of a dynamic background albedo scheme on Sahel/Sahara precipitation during the mid-Holocene (Vamborg, 2011)
Variations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in control and transient simulations of the last millennium (Hofer, 2011)
Can oceanic paleothermometers reconstruct the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation? (Heslop, 2011)
Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (Mikolajewicz, 2011)
Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions (Kettle, 2011)
Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox (Goldblatt, 2011)
North Atlantic abrupt climatic events of the last glacial period recorded in Ukrainian loess deposits (Rousseau, 2011)
A new mechanism for the two-step δ18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (Tigchelaar, 2011)
Initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth in a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (Voigt, 2011)
Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (Brönnimann, 2011)
A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation (Topper, 2011)
Ultra-high resolution pollen record from the northern Andes reveals rapid shifts in montane climates within the last two glacial cycles (Groot, 2011)
Fingerprints of changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to large reorganizations in ocean circulation (Bozbiyik, 2011)
Solar-forced shifts of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the Holocene (Varma, 2011)
Terrestrial mollusc records from Xifeng and Luochuan L9 loess strata and their implications for paleoclimatic evolution in the Chinese Loess Plateau during marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 24-22 (Wu, 2011)
Interglacial and glacial variability from the last 800 ka in marine, ice and terrestrial archives (Lang, 2011)
Greenland ice sheet model parameters constrained using simulations of the Eemian Interglacial (Robinson, 2011)
A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores (Masson-Delmotte, 2011)
Seasonal climate impacts on the grape harvest date in Burgundy (France) (Krieger, 2011)
Links between MIS 11 millennial to sub-millennial climate variability and long term trends as revealed by new high resolution EPICA Dome C deuterium data – A comparison with the Holocene (Pol, 2011)
A regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula for the last millennium (Gómez-Navarro, 2011)
Abrupt rise in atmospheric CO2 at the onset of the Bølling/Allerød: in-situ ice core data versus true atmospheric signals (Köhler, 2011)
The global ocean circulation on a retrograde rotating earth (Kamphuis, 2011)
High carbon sequestration in Siberian permafrost loess-paleosols during glacials (Zech, 2011)
Evaluating climate model performance with various parameter sets using observations over the recent past (Loutre, 2011)
The construction of a Central Netherlands temperature (van der Schrier, 2011)
Winter and summer blocking variability in the North Atlantic region – evidence from long-term observational and proxy data from southwestern Greenland (Rimbu, 2011)
Impact of CO2 and climate on the Last Glacial Maximum vegetation: results from the ORCHIDEE/IPSL models (Woillez, 2011)
Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium (Junk, 2011)
Reply to Henriksson et al.’s comment on “Using multiple observationally-based constraints to estimate climate sensitivity” by Annan and Hargreaves (2010) (Annan, 2011)
Deciphering the spatio-temporal complexity of climate change of the last deglaciation: a model analysis (Roche, 2011)
The early Eocene equable climate problem revisited (Huber, 2011)
Methane variations on orbital timescales: a transient modeling experiment (Konijnendijk, 2011)
A coupled climate model simulation of Marine Isotope Stage 3 stadial climate (Brandefelt, 2011)
The last deglaciation: timing the bipolar seesaw (Pedro, 2011)
Climate patterns in north central China during the last 1800 yr and their possible driving force (Tan, 2011)
Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater (Xiao, 2011)
High-resolution records of the beryllium-10 solar activity proxy in ice from Law Dome, East Antarctica: measurement, reproducibility and principal trends (Pedro, 2011)
Implications of the permanent El Niño teleconnection “blueprint” for past global and North American hydroclimatology (Goldner, 2011)
Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology (Beltrami, 2011)
Enhanced climate variability in the tropics: a 200 000 yr annual record of monsoon variability from Pangea’s equator (Anderson, 2011)
Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise (Tschumi, 2011)
Tropical seaways played a more important role than high latitude seaways in Cenozoic cooling (Zhang, 2011)
Holocene evolution of summer winds and marine productivity in the tropical Indian Ocean in response to insolation forcing: data-model comparison (Bassinot, 2011)
Down the Rabbit Hole: toward appropriate discussion of methane release from gas hydrate systems during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and other past hyperthermal events (Dickens, 2011)
Regional climate model experiments to investigate the Asian monsoon in the Late Miocene (Tang, 2011)
Antarctic ice sheet and oceanographic response to eccentricity forcing during the early Miocene (Liebrand, 2011)
Holocene vegetation and biomass changes on the Tibetan Plateau – a model-pollen data comparison (Dallmeyer, 2011)
Cold tongue/Warm pool and ENSO dynamics in the Pliocene (von der Heydt, 2011)
Are paleoclimate model ensembles consistent with the MARGO data synthesis? (Hargreaves, 2011)
Impact of North Atlantic – GIN Sea exchange on deglaciation evolution of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (Cheng, 2011)
Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacial (Trommer, 2011)
A millennial multi-proxy reconstruction of summer PDSI for Southern South America (Boucher, 2011)
Temperature trends at the Mauna Loa observatory, Hawaii (Malamud, 2011)
Sub-decadal- to decadal-scale climate cyclicity during the Holsteinian interglacial (MIS 11) evidenced in annually laminated sediments (Koutsodendris, 2011)
A refined TALDICE-1a age scale from 55 to 112 ka before present for the Talos Dome ice core based on high-resolution methane measurements (Schüpbach, 2011)
Temperature variability at Dürres Maar, Germany during the Migration Period and at High Medieval Times, inferred from stable carbon isotopes of Sphagnum cellulose (Moschen, 2011)
Strength of forest-albedo feedback in mid-Holocene climate simulations (Otto, 2011)
Sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature and δ18O: ice core data, orbital and increased CO2 climate simulations (Masson-Delmotte, 2011)
Weakened atmospheric energy transport feedback in cold glacial climates (Cvijanovic, 2011)
Uncertainties in modelling CH4 emissions from northern wetlands in glacial climates: the role of vegetation parameters (Berrittella, 2011)
The key role of topography in altering North Atlantic atmospheric circulation during the last glacial period (Pausata, 2011)
Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study (Adloff, 2011)
Interhemispheric gradient of atmospheric radiocarbon reveals natural variability of Southern Ocean winds (Rodgers, 2011)
Evolution of the seasonal temperature cycle in a transient Holocene simulation: orbital forcing and sea-ice (Fischer, 2011)
The Middle Miocene climate as modelled in an atmosphere-ocean-biosphere model (Krapp, 2011)
Using synoptic type analysis to understand New Zealand climate during the Mid-Holocene (Ackerley, 2011)
Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean (Dupont, 2011)
Present and LGM permafrost from climate simulations: contribution of statistical downscaling (Levavasseur, 2011)
NALPS: a precisely dated European climate record 120-60 ka (Boch, 2011)
Hydrological variability in the Northern Levant: a 250 ka multiproxy record from the Yammoûneh (Lebanon) sedimentary sequence (Gasse, 2011)
High-latitude obliquity as a dominant forcing in the Agulhas current system (Caley, 2011)
Heinrich event 1: an example of dynamical ice-sheet reaction to oceanic changes (Álvarez-Solas, 2011)
Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970 (Wetter, 2011)
Past surface temperatures at the NorthGRIP drill site from the difference in firn diffusion of water isotopes (Simonsen, 2011)
Quantifying sea surface temperature ranges of the Arabian Sea for the past 20 000 years (Ganssen, 2011)
Late Holocene plant and climate evolution at Lake Yoa, northern Chad: pollen data and climate simulations (Lézine, 2011)
Distinct responses of East Asian summer and winter monsoons to astronomical forcing (Shi, 2011)
Past environmental and climatic changes during the last 7200 cal yr BP in Adamawa plateau (Northern-Cameroun) based on fossil diatoms and sedimentary carbon isotopic records from Lake Mbalang (Nguetsop, 2011)
Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach (Nieto-Moreno, 2011)
The role of orbital forcing, carbon dioxide and regolith in 100 kyr glacial cycles (Ganopolski, 2011)
Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian (Svensson, 2011)
Volcanic impact on the Atlantic Ocean over the last millennium (Mignot, 2011)
Reconstruction of a continuous high-resolution CO2 record over the past 20 million years (van de Wal, 2011)
Deglaciation records of 17O-excess in East Antarctica: reliable reconstruction of oceanic normalized relative humidity from coastal sites (Winkler, 2012)
Ventilation changes in the western North Pacific since the last glacial period (Okazaki, 2012)
Internal and external variability in regional simulations of the Iberian Peninsula climate over the last millennium (Gómez-Navarro, 2012)
Tropical climate and vegetation changes during Heinrich Event 1: a model-data comparison (Handiani, 2012)
Pollen, vegetation change and climate at Lake Barombi Mbo (Cameroon) during the last ca. 33 000 cal yr BP: a numerical approach (Lebamba, 2012)
Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisited (Khélifi, 2012)
Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data (Venema, 2012)
Climate variability in Andalusia (southern Spain) during the period 1701-1850 based on documentary sources: evaluation and comparison with climate model simulations (Rodrigo, 2012)
Change in dust variability in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica at the end of the last deglaciation (Wegner, 2012)
Impact of oceanic processes on the carbon cycle during the last termination (Bouttes, 2012)
Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys (Föllmi, 2012)
Towards orbital dating of the EPICA Dome C ice core using δO2/N2 (Landais, 2012)
Reconstruction of southeast Tibetan Plateau summer climate using tree ring δ18O: moisture variability over the past two centuries (Shi, 2012)
Warm Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Southern Ocean (Jenkyns, 2012)
Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns in the last 12 centuries (Ljungqvist, 2012)
Glacial CO2 cycle as a succession of key physical and biogeochemical processes (Brovkin, 2012)
Inferences on weather extremes and weather-related disasters: a review of statistical methods (Visser, 2012)
Hydroclimate variability in the low-elevation Atacama Desert over the last 2500 yr (Gayo, 2012)
The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia): validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool (Alexandre, 2012)
Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland (Auchmann, 2012)
Precessional and half-precessional climate forcing of Mid-Devonian monsoon-like dynamics (de Vleeschouwer, 2012)
Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century) (Alcoforado, 2012)
Climate variability of the mid- and high-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in ensemble simulations from 1500 to 2000 AD (Wilmes, 2012)
Holocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate models (Varma, 2012)
Little Ice Age advance and retreat of Glaciar Jorge Montt, Chilean Patagonia (Rivera, 2012)
Climatically-controlled siliceous productivity in the eastern Gulf of Guinea during the last 40 000 yr (Crosta, 2012)
Exploring errors in paleoclimate proxy reconstructions using Monte Carlo simulations: paleotemperature from mollusk and coral geochemistry (Carré, 2012)
Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records (Holz, 2012)
Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD (Brázdil, 2012)
Persistent influence of ice sheet melting on high northern latitude climate during the early Last Interglacial (Govin, 2012)
Volcanic synchronisation of the EPICA-DC and TALDICE ice cores for the last 42 kyr BP (Severi, 2012)
Precipitation as the main driver of Neoglacial fluctuations of Gualas glacier, Northern Patagonian Icefield (Bertrand, 2012)
A critical humidity threshold for monsoon transitions (Schewe, 2012)
Quantifying the ocean’s role in glacial CO2 reductions (Chikamoto, 2012)
Vegetation-climate interactions in the warm mid-Cretaceous (Zhou, 2012)
Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates (Yiou, 2012)
Systematic study of the impact of fresh water fluxes on the glacial carbon cycle (Bouttes, 2012)
Centennial mineral dust variability in high-resolution ice core data from Dome C, Antarctica (Lambert, 2012)
The quantitative reconstruction of the palaeoclimate between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China (Sun, 2012)
A seesaw in Mediterranean precipitation during the Roman Period linked to millennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic (Dermody, 2012)
Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings (Morales, 2012)
Inferred gas hydrate and permafrost stability history models linked to climate change in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada (Majorowicz, 2012)
A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees (Morellón, 2012)
Comment on “Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox” by Goldblatt and Zahnle (2011) (Rondanelli, 2012)
Assessing extreme droughts in Spain during 1750-1850 from rogation ceremonies (Domínguez-Castro, 2012)
Monsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCM (Bosmans, 2012)
Interpreting last glacial to Holocene dust changes at Talos Dome (East Antarctica): implications for atmospheric variations from regional to hemispheric scales (Albani, 2012)
Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD) (Génova, 2012)
The extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere temperature in the last two millennia: reconstructions of low-frequency variability (Christiansen, 2012)
Tropical Pacific spatial trend patterns in observed sea level: internal variability and/or anthropogenic signature? (Meyssignac, 2012)
A climate model intercomparison for the Antarctic region: present and past (Maris, 2012)
Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina (Mundo, 2012)
Natural variability and anthropogenic effects in a Central Mediterranean core (Alessio, 2012)
Masked millennial-scale climate variations in South West Africa during the last glaciation (Hessler, 2012)
Snow and weather climatic control on snow avalanche occurrence fluctuations over 50 yr in the French Alps (Castebrunet, 2012)
Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 yr linked to the austral westerlies (Stager, 2012)
Bacterial GDGTs in Holocene sediments and catchment soils of a high Alpine lake: application of the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer (Niemann, 2012)
The initiation of modern soft and hard Snowball Earth climates in CCSM4 (Yang, 2012)
Estimating 750 years of temperature variations and uncertainties in the Pyrenees by tree-ring reconstructions and climate simulations (Dorado Liñán, 2012)
The impact of different glacial boundary conditions on atmospheric dynamics and precipitation in the North Atlantic region (Hofer, 2012)
Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th-20th century (Prieto, 2012)
An ensemble-based approach to climate reconstructions (Bhend, 2012)
Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) (Dedert, 2012)
Sensitivity of the North Atlantic climate to Greenland Ice Sheet melting during the Last Interglacial (Bakker, 2012)
Role of CO2 and Southern Ocean winds in glacial abrupt climate change (Banderas, 2012)
Winter temperature variations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD (Hao, 2012)
Volcanic synchronisation between the EPICA Dome C and Vostok ice cores (Antarctica) 0-145 kyr BP (Parrenin, 2012)
The Aptian evaporites of the South Atlantic: a climatic paradox? (Chaboureau, 2012)
Impact of postglacial warming on borehole reconstructions of last millennium temperatures (Rath, 2012)
A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability (Frigola, 2012)
Fluctuations of Glaciar Esperanza Norte in the north Patagonian Andes of Argentina during the past 400 yr (Ruiz, 2012)
Early and mid-Holocene climate in the tropical Pacific: seasonal cycle and interannual variability induced by insolation changes (Luan, 2012)
Ranges of moisture-source temperature estimated from Antarctic ice cores stable isotope records over glacial-interglacial cycles (Uemura, 2012)
Climate bifurcation during the last deglaciation? (Lenton, 2012)
Identification of climatic state with limited proxy data (Annan, 2012)
Millennial-length forward models and pseudoproxies of stalagmite δ18O: an example from NW Scotland (Baker, 2012)
Changes in the strength and width of the Hadley Circulation since 1871 (Liu, 2012)
Enrichment in 13C of atmospheric CH4 during the Younger Dryas termination (Melton, 2012)
Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain (Sanchez-Lorenzo, 2012)
Tightened constraints on the time-lag between Antarctic temperature and CO2 during the last deglaciation (Pedro, 2012)
Little Ice Age climate and oceanic conditions of the Ross Sea, Antarctica from a coastal ice core record (Rhodes, 2012)
On the gas-ice depth difference (Δdepth) along the EPICA Dome C ice core (Parrenin, 2012)
The relative roles of CO2 and palaeogeography in determining late Miocene climate: results from a terrestrial model-data comparison (Bradshaw, 2012)
Vegetation history of central Chukotka deduced from permafrost paleoenvironmental records of the El’gygytgyn Impact Crater (Andreev, 2012)
A review of the South American monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia (Vuille, 2012)
Drastic shrinking of the Hadley circulation during the mid-Cretaceous Supergreenhouse (Hasegawa, 2012)
Statistical framework for evaluation of climate model simulations by use of climate proxy data from the last millennium – Part 1: Theory (Sundberg, 2012)
Statistical framework for evaluation of climate model simulations by use of climate proxy data from the last millennium – Part 2: A pseudo-proxy study addressing the amplitude of solar forcing (Hind, 2012)
Holocene climate variability in north-eastern Italy: potential influence of the NAO and solar activity recorded by speleothem data (Scholz, 2012)
Modelling and climatic interpretation of the length fluctuations of Glaciar Frías (north Patagonian Andes, Argentina) 1639-2009 AD (Leclercq, 2012)
An open-access database of grape harvest dates for climate research: data description and quality assessment (Daux, 2012)
The climate in the Baltic Sea region during the last millennium simulated with a regional climate model (Schimanke, 2012)
Contribution of changes in opal productivity and nutrient distribution in the coastal upwelling systems to Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene climate cooling (Etourneau, 2012)
“OAE 3” – regional Atlantic organic carbon burial during the Coniacian-Santonian (Wagreich, 2012)
Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis (Daley, 2012)
Can we predict the duration of an interglacial? (Tzedakis, 2012)
Mechanisms for European summer temperature response to solar forcing over the last millennium (Swingedouw, 2012)
Stable isotope and trace element investigation of two contemporaneous annually-laminated stalagmites from northeastern China surrounding the “8.2 ka event” (Wu, 2012)
Planetary fertility during the past 400 ka based on the triple isotope composition of O2 in trapped gases from the Vostok ice core (Blunier, 2012)
Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries (Naef-Daenzer, 2012)
Isotopic and lithologic variations of one precisely-dated stalagmite across the Medieval/LIA period from Heilong Cave, central China (Cui, 2012)
Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations (Brohan, 2012)
Modelling large-scale ice-sheet-climate interactions following glacial inception (Gregory, 2012)
Marine productivity response to Heinrich events: a model-data comparison (Mariotti, 2012)
Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations (Wagner, 2012)
A 250 ka oxygen isotope record from diatoms at Lake El’gygytgyn, far east Russian Arctic (Chapligin, 2012)
Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series (Mudelsee, 2012)
HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973-2011 (Dunn, 2012)
Reconstruction of high resolution atmospheric fields for Northern Europe using analog-upscaling (Schenk, 2012)
Timing and magnitude of equatorial Atlantic surface warming during the last glacial bipolar oscillation (Weldeab, 2012)
A model-data comparison for a multi-model ensemble of early Eocene atmosphere-ocean simulations: EoMIP (Lunt, 2012)
A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France) (Szymczak, 2012)
Bunker Cave stalagmites: an archive for central European Holocene climate variability (Fohlmeister, 2012)
COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models (COPRA) (Breitenbach, 2012)
Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves (Wackerbarth, 2012)
Modelling snow accumulation on Greenland in Eemian, glacial inception, and modern climates in a GCM (Punge, 2012)
Coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonate – a new archive to estimate the Last Glacial minimum permafrost depth in Central Europe (Žák, 2012)
Duration of Greenland Stadial 22 and ice-gas Δage from counting of annual layers in Greenland NGRIP ice core (Vallelonga, 2012)
The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives (Riechelmann, 2012)
Automated ice-core layer-counting with strong univariate signals (Wheatley, 2012)
An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores (Winstrup, 2012)
Depositional dynamics in the El’gygytgyn Crater margin: implications for the 3.6 Ma old sediment archive (Schwamborn, 2012)
Climate warming and vegetation response after Heinrich event 1 (16 700-16 000 cal yr BP) in Europe south of the Alps (Samartin, 2012)
An independently dated 2000-yr volcanic record from Law Dome, East Antarctica, including a new perspective on the dating of the 1450s CE eruption of Kuwae, Vanuatu (Plummer, 2012)
Vegetation dynamics in the Northeastern Mediterranean region during the past 23 000 yr: insights from a new pollen record from the Sea of Marmara (Valsecchi, 2012)
Exploring the controls on element ratios in middle Eocene samples of the benthic foraminifera Oridorsalis umbonatus (Dawber, 2012)
Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in southern Italy: the case of Lago Trifoglietti (Joannin, 2012)
An ocean-ice coupled response during the last glacial: a view from a marine isotopic stage 3 record south of the Faeroe Shetland Gateway (Zumaque, 2012)
Radiative effects of ozone on the climate of a Snowball Earth (Yang, 2012)
Terminations VI and VIII (∼ 530 and ∼ 720 kyr BP) tell us the importance of obliquity and precession in the triggering of deglaciations (Parrenin, 2012)
A re-evaluation of the palaeoclimatic significance of phosphorus variability in speleothems revealed by high-resolution synchrotron micro XRF mapping (Frisia, 2012)
Investigating the past and recent δ18O-accumulation relationship seen in Greenland ice cores (Buchardt, 2012)
A mechanism for dust-induced destabilization of glacial climates (Farrell, 2012)
Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) (Wagner, 2012)
Sea-ice dynamics strongly promote Snowball Earth initiation and destabilize tropical sea-ice margins (Voigt, 2012)
Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas (Vogel, 2013)
Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene (Dietrich, 2013)
Long-term summer sunshine/moisture stress reconstruction from tree-ring widths from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Poljanšek, 2013)
An underestimated record breaking event – why summer 1540 was likely warmer than 2003 (Wetter, 2013)
Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD (Bakker, 2013)
Simulated European stalagmite record and its relation to a quasi-decadal climate mode (Lohmann, 2013)
Stable isotopes in caves over altitudinal gradients: fractionation behaviour and inferences for speleothem sensitivity to climate change (Johnston, 2013)
Past climate changes and permafrost depth at the Lake El’gygytgyn site: implications from data and thermal modeling (Mottaghy, 2013)
Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El’gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples (Wennrich, 2013)
Response of methane emissions from wetlands to the Last Glacial Maximum and an idealized Dansgaard-Oeschger climate event: insights from two models of different complexity (Ringeval, 2013)
Does Antarctic glaciation cool the world? (Goldner, 2013)
Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (Haywood, 2013)
Tree-ring-based summer mean temperature variations in the Adamello-Presanella Group (Italian Central Alps), 1610-2008 AD (Coppola, 2013)
Palynological evidence for gradual vegetation and climate changes during the African Humid Period termination at 13°N from a Mega-Lake Chad sedimentary sequence (Amaral, 2013)
A biomarker record of Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic: investigating sources of organic matter and carbon cycling during marine isotope stages 1-3 (Holland, 2013)
Reconstruction of northeast Asia spring temperature 1784-1990 (Ohyama, 2013)
Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans (Damaschke, 2013)
What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates? (van der Werf, 2013)
The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes (Ledru, 2013)
Dansgaard-Oeschger events: bifurcation points in the climate system (Cimatoribus, 2013)
Modern isotope hydrology and controls on δD of plant leaf waxes at Lake El’gygytgyn, NE Russia (Wilkie, 2013)
Greenland ice sheet contribution to sea level rise during the last interglacial period: a modelling study driven and constrained by ice core data (Quiquet, 2013)
A new global reconstruction of temperature changes at the Last Glacial Maximum (Annan, 2013)
Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany) (Kluge, 2013)
Large-scale temperature response to external forcing in simulations and reconstructions of the last millennium (Fernández-Donado, 2013)
Proxy benchmarks for intercomparison of 8.2 ka simulations (Morrill, 2013)
High-temperature thermomagnetic properties of vivianite nodules, Lake El’gygytgyn, Northeast Russia (Minyuk, 2013)
Multi-periodic climate dynamics: spectral analysis of long-term instrumental and proxy temperature records (Lüdecke, 2013)
The East Asian Summer Monsoon at mid-Holocene: results from PMIP3 simulations (Zheng, 2013)
Rock magnetic properties, magnetic susceptibility, and organic geochemistry comparison in core LZ1029-7 Lake El’gygytgyn, Russia Far East (Murdock, 2013)
A Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change from Lake Dojran (Macedonia, Greece) (Francke, 2013)
Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea (Siani, 2013)
Southern westerlies in LGM and future (RCP4.5) climates (Chavaillaz, 2013)
Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate by variable drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 from weathering of basaltic provinces on continents drifting through the equatorial humid belt (Kent, 2013)
Variability of the ocean heat content during the last millennium – an assessment with the ECHO-g Model (Ortega, 2013)
High-latitude environmental change during MIS 9 and 11: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russia (D’Anjou, 2013)
On the origin of multidecadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr (Kobashi, 2013)
Iron fluxes to Talos Dome, Antarctica, over the past 200 kyr (Vallelonga, 2013)
Last interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparison (Bakker, 2013)
Quantification of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to Last Interglacial sea level rise (Stone, 2013)
Madagascar corals reveal a multidecadal signature of rainfall and river runoff since 1708 (Grove, 2013)
HadISDH: an updateable land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring (Willett, 2013)
Amplified bioproductivity during Transition IV (332 000-342 000 yr ago): evidence from the geochemical record of Lake El’gygytgyn (Cunningham, 2013)
Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy (Orain, 2013)
A multi-model assessment of last interglacial temperatures (Lunt, 2013)
Potential and limits of OSL, TT-OSL, IRSL and pIRIR290 dating methods applied on a Middle Pleistocene sediment record of Lake El’gygytgyn, Russia (Zander, 2013)
Modeling the climatic implications and indicative senses of the Guliya δ18O-temperature proxy record to the ocean-atmosphere system during the past 130 ka (Xiao, 2013)
Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores at the Toba eruption (74 ka BP) (Svensson, 2013)
Deglacial and Holocene vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central Mediterranean from a direct land-sea correlation (Desprat, 2013)
Influence of Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions on the global water isotope distribution in an atmospheric general circulation model (Tharammal, 2013)
Skill and reliability of climate model ensembles at the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene (Hargreaves, 2013)
Mass-movement and flood-induced deposits in Lake Ledro, southern Alps, Italy: implications for Holocene palaeohydrology and natural hazards (Simonneau, 2013)
Controls of Caribbean surface hydrology during the mid- to late Holocene: insights from monthly resolved coral records (Giry, 2013)
Mismatch between the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera and the calibration depth of SST transfer functions may bias reconstructions (Telford, 2013)
Stable isotopic evidence of El Niño-like atmospheric circulation in the Pliocene western United States (Winnick, 2013)
Using data assimilation to investigate the causes of Southern Hemisphere high latitude cooling from 10 to 8 ka BP (Mathiot, 2013)
Impact of precipitation intermittency on NAO-temperature signals in proxy records (Casado, 2013)
Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy) (Joannin, 2013)
Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study (Kageyama, 2013)
Model sensitivity to North Atlantic freshwater forcing at 8.2 ka (Morrill, 2013)
The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations (Berger, 2013)
Glacial-interglacial dynamics of Antarctic firn columns: comparison between simulations and ice core air-δ15N measurements (Capron, 2013)
Excursions to C4 vegetation recorded in the Upper Pleistocene loess of Surduk (Northern Serbia): an organic isotope geochemistry study (Hatté, 2013)
Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age – a case study from the Baltic Sea (Lougheed, 2013)
Spatial gradients of temperature, accumulation and δ18O-ice in Greenland over a series of Dansgaard-Oeschger events (Guillevic, 2013)
Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe (López-García, 2013)
Tracking atmospheric and riverine terrigenous supplies variability during the last glacial and the Holocene in central Mediterranean (Bout-Roumazeilles, 2013)
Climate of the last millennium: ensemble consistency of simulations and reconstructions (Bothe, 2013)
Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (Eby, 2013)
An assessment of particle filtering methods and nudging for climate state reconstructions (Dubinkina, 2013)
Temperature changes over the past 2000 yr in China and comparison with the Northern Hemisphere (Ge, 2013)
The Irish famine of 1740-1741: famine vulnerability and “climate migration” (Engler, 2013)
Abrupt shifts of the Sahara-Sahel boundary during Heinrich stadials (Collins, 2013)
Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy (Vannière, 2013)
Vegetation responses to interglacial warming in the Arctic: examples from Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic (Lozhkin, 2013)
Greenland ice core evidence of the 79 AD Vesuvius eruption (Barbante, 2013)
Contrasting patterns of climatic changes during the Holocene across the Italian Peninsula reconstructed from pollen data (Peyron, 2013)
Quantitative and qualitative constraints on hind-casting the formation of multiyear lake-ice covers at Lake El’gygytgyn (Nolan, 2013)
Synoptic climatology and recent climate trends at Lake El’gygytgyn (Nolan, 2013)
Transient simulations of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands: from the Last Glacial Maximum to the 21st century (Spahni, 2013)
Dynamic diatom response to changing climate 0–1.2 Ma at Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic (Snyder, 2013)
A volcanically triggered regime shift in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean as a possible origin of the Little Ice Age (Schleussner, 2013)
Documentary-derived chronologies of rainfall variability in Antigua, Lesser Antilles, 1770-1890 (Berland, 2013)
Millennial-scale variability of marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply in the western Bering Sea over the past 180 kyr (Riethdorf, 2013)
Seemingly divergent sea surface temperature proxy records in the central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation (Sicre, 2013)
Modeling dust emission response to North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations from the perspective of East European MIS 3 loess deposits (Sima, 2013)
Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores (Preunkert, 2013)
Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene (Contoux, 2013)
Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by changes in insolation and ENSO variability (Etourneau, 2013)
Preface ”Holocene changes in environment and climate in the central Mediterranean as reflected by lake and marine records” (Magny, 2013)
Preliminary estimation of Lake El’gygytgyn water balance and sediment income (Fedorov, 2013)
Detailed insight into Arctic climatic variability during MIS 11c at Lake El’gygytgyn, NE Russia (Vogel, 2013)
Bayesian parameter estimation and interpretation for an intermediate model of tree-ring width (Tolwinski-Ward, 2013)
Mid-pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation not unlike modern (Zhang, 2013)
Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yr (Dylmer, 2013)
Can an Earth System Model simulate better climate change at mid-Holocene than an AOGCM? A comparison study of MIROC-ESM and MIROC3 (Ohgaito, 2013)
Inter-annual tropical Pacific climate variability in an isotope-enabled CGCM: implications for interpreting coral stable oxygen isotope records of ENSO (Russon, 2013)
A 350 ka record of climate change from Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic: refining the pattern of climate modes by means of cluster analysis (Frank, 2013)
Influence of dynamic vegetation on climate change and terrestrial carbon storage in the Last Glacial Maximum (O’ishi, 2013)
Importance of precipitation seasonality for the interpretation of Eemian ice core isotope records from Greenland (van de Berg, 2013)
Late Neolithic Mondsee Culture in Austria: living on lakes and living with flood risk? (Swierczynski, 2013)
A comparative study of large-scale atmospheric circulation in the context of a future scenario (RCP4.5) and past warmth (mid-Pliocene) (Sun, 2013)
The Holocene thermal maximum in the Nordic Seas: the impact of Greenland Ice Sheet melt and other forcings in a coupled atmosphere-sea-ice-ocean model (Blaschek, 2013)
Caspian sea-level changes during the last millennium: historical and geological evidence from the south Caspian Sea (Naderi Beni, 2013)
A regional climate palaeosimulation for Europe in the period 1500-1990 – Part 1: Model validation (Gómez-Navarro, 2013)
Tropical vegetation response to Heinrich Event 1 as simulated with the UVic ESCM and CCSM3 (Handiani, 2013)
LGM permafrost distribution: how well can the latest PMIP multi-model ensembles perform reconstruction? (Saito, 2013)
An optimized multi-proxy, multi-site Antarctic ice and gas orbital chronology (AICC2012): 120-800 ka (Bazin, 2013)
The Antarctic ice core chronology (AICC2012): an optimized multi-parameter and multi-site dating approach for the last 120 thousand years (Veres, 2013)
On the effect of orbital forcing on mid-Pliocene climate, vegetation and ice sheets (Willeit, 2013)
Assessing the impact of late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions on global vegetation and climate (Brault, 2013)
Coupled regional climate-ice-sheet simulation shows limited Greenland ice loss during the Eemian (Helsen, 2013)
The last interglacial (Eemian) climate simulated by LOVECLIM and CCSM3 (Nikolova, 2013)
A model-data comparison of the Holocene global sea surface temperature evolution (Lohmann, 2013)
Albedo and heat transport in 3-D model simulations of the early Archean climate (Kienert, 2013)
Late Cenozoic continuous aridification in the western Qaidam Basin: evidence from sporopollen records (Miao, 2013)
A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties (Roth, 2013)
Post-Pliocene establishment of the present monsoonal climate in SW China: evidence from the late Pliocene Longmen megaflora (Su, 2013)
Late Holocene summer temperatures in the central Andes reconstructed from the sediments of high-elevation Laguna Chepical, Chile (32° S) (de Jong, 2013)
Petrophysical characterization of the lacustrine sediment succession drilled in Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic (Gebhardt, 2013)
Mass movement deposits in the 3.6 Ma sediment record of Lake El’gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic (Sauerbrey, 2013)
The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy) (Sadori, 2013)
Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090-2012 AD (Brázdil, 2013)
On the Milankovitch sensitivity of the Quaternary deep-sea record (Berger, 2013)
Simulating the temperature and precipitation signal in an Alpine ice core (Brönnimann, 2013)
Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea) (Combourieu-Nebout, 2013)
North-south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses (Magny, 2013)
Long-term variations in Iceland-Scotland overflow strength during the Holocene (Thornalley, 2013)
Mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate simulated in the PlioMIP (Zhang, 2013)
Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India) (Reuter, 2013)
A mid-Holocene climate reconstruction for eastern South America (Prado, 2013)
Glacial fluctuations of the Indian monsoon and their relationship with North Atlantic climate: new data and modelling experiments (Marzin, 2013)
Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia (Tian, 2013)
Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model? (Risi, 2013)
Water-soluble organic carbon in snow and ice deposited at Alpine, Greenland, and Antarctic sites: a critical review of available data and their atmospheric relevance (Legrand, 2013)
Major dust events in Europe during marine isotope stage 5 (130-74 ka): a climatic interpretation of the “markers” (Rousseau, 2013)
Global and regional sea surface temperature trends during Marine Isotope Stage 11 (Milker, 2013)
Why could ice ages be unpredictable? (Crucifix, 2013)
Inferred changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation variance over the past six centuries (McGregor, 2013)
Mid- and late Holocene dust deposition in western Europe: the Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes – Belgium) (Allan, 2013)
Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes (Kobashi, 2013)
Different ocean states and transient characteristics in Last Glacial Maximum simulations and implications for deglaciation (Zhang, 2013)
Using ice-flow models to evaluate potential sites of million year-old ice in Antarctica (Van Liefferinge, 2013)
Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa (Weldeab, 2013)
Pre-LGM Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography (Kleman, 2013)
Eurasian Arctic climate over the past millennium as recorded in the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya) (Opel, 2013)
Re-evaluation of the age model for North Atlantic Ocean Site 982 – arguments for a return to the original chronology (Lawrence, 2013)
Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai (Papina, 2013)

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New research – general climate science (August 23, 2016)

Posted by Ari Jokimäki on August 23, 2016

Some of the latest papers on general climate science (i.e. papers that haven’t been included to any other categories) are shown below. First a few highlighted papers with abstracts and then a list of some other papers. If this subject interests you, be sure to check also the other papers – they are by no means less interesting than the highlighted ones.


Reconsidering meteorological seasons in a changing climate (Kutta & Hubbart, 2016)

Abstract: Traditional definitions of seasonality are insufficient to reflect changes associated with a swiftly changing climate. Regional changes in season onset and length using surface based metrics are well documented, but hemispheric assessments using tropospheric metrics has received little attention. The long-term average of six-hourly analyses of temperature on isobaric surfaces, provided by the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, is separated here into quartiles to determine climatologic seasonal end dates. Annual season end dates are defined as the date when the 5-day moving average rose above (winter and spring) or fell below (summer and fall) the long term mean. Climatic season end dates fall between meteorological and astronomical season end dates. The length of summer has increased by an average of 13 days and the length of winter has decreased by an average of 20 days, which are more substantial seasonal changes than previous studies. These changes in season length have occurred largely within the past 36 years, corresponding to most aggressive anthropogenic climate change. Results show that the planetary boundary layer is warming at nearly twice the rate of the free troposphere. The spatial distribution of warming suggests that topographically induced weather systems are collocated with maxima or minima in free tropospheric and boundary layer temperature slope. Furthermore, regions of greatest ensemble spread are not collocated with relative maxima or minima in free troposphere or boundary layer temperature slope. This improved assessment of seasonal transitions is useful to climatologists, agricultural land managers, and scientists interested in seasonally driven biology, hydrology and biogeochemical processes.

Mikhail Budyko’s (1920–2001) contributions to Global Climate Science: from heat balances to climate change and global ecology (Oldfield, 2016)

Abstract: Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920–2001) was a Soviet climatologist perhaps best known in the West for his contribution to understandings of climate change. He acted as director of the Main Geophysical Observatory (named after A.I. Voeikov) in Leningrad (St Petersburg) from 1954 and played an active role in advancing Soviet climate agendas within an international context. Three main stages in the development of Budyko’s work related to climate systems and global ecology (late 1940s-mid 1980s) are identified. The first period encompasses his early efforts devoted to understanding and quantifying the interrelationship between the lower atmosphere and the earth’s surface. This stage of his career was also characterized by a growing interest in regional- and global-scale processes, and was underpinned by collaborative work involving climatologists, physical geographers, and other cognate scientists. The second stage highlights the broadening of his global interest in order to engage more deeply with both natural and anthropogenic climatic and environmental change. The third stage reflects on the development of his expansive and evolutionary approach to the biosphere, and his insight into the formative role of climate with respect to the functioning of physical and biological processes. Furthermore, this later work also exhibited a strong belief in the ability of humankind to reflect wisely on its growing influence on the physical environment and respond appropriately.

Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends (Stopa, Ardhuin & Girard-Ardhuin, 2016)

Abstract: Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind strength, and wind direction, creating distinct features in the wind seas and swells. The altimeters and model show that the reduction of sea ice coverage causes increasing wave heights instead of the wind. However, trends are convoluted by interannual climate oscillations like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In the Nordic Greenland Sea the NAO influences the decreasing wind speeds and wave heights. Swells are becoming more prevalent and wind-sea steepness is declining. The satellite data show the sea ice minimum occurs later in fall when the wind speeds increase. This creates more favorable conditions for wave development. Therefore we expect the ice freeze-up in fall to be the most critical season in the Arctic and small changes in ice cover, wind speeds, and wave heights can have large impacts to the evolution of the sea ice throughout the year. It is inconclusive how important wave–ice processes are within the climate system, but selected events suggest the importance of waves within the marginal ice zone.

Flight paths of seabirds soaring over the ocean surface enable measurement of fine-scale wind speed and direction (Yonehara et al. 2016)

Abstract: Ocean surface winds are an essential factor in understanding the physical interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. Surface winds measured by satellite scatterometers and buoys cover most of the global ocean; however, there are still spatial and temporal gaps and finer-scale variations of wind that may be overlooked, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we show that flight paths of soaring seabirds can be used to estimate fine-scale (every 5 min, ~5 km) ocean surface winds. Fine-scale global positioning system (GPS) positional data revealed that soaring seabirds flew tortuously and ground speed fluctuated presumably due to tail winds and head winds. Taking advantage of the ground speed difference in relation to flight direction, we reliably estimated wind speed and direction experienced by the birds. These bird-based wind velocities were significantly correlated with wind velocities estimated by satellite-borne scatterometers. Furthermore, extensive travel distances and flight duration of the seabirds enabled a wide range of high-resolution wind observations, especially in coastal areas. Our study suggests that seabirds provide a platform from which to measure ocean surface winds, potentially complementing conventional wind measurements by covering spatial and temporal measurement gaps.

The Climate of Titan (Mitchell & Lora, 2016)

Abstract: Over the past decade, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has revolutionized our understanding of Titan and its climate. Veiled in a thick organic haze, Titan’s visible appearance belies an active, seasonal weather cycle operating in the lower atmosphere. Here we review the climate of Titan, as gleaned from observations and models. Titan’s cold surface temperatures (∼90 K) allow methane to form clouds and precipitation analogously to Earth’s hydrologic cycle. Because of Titan’s slow rotation and small size, its atmospheric circulation falls into a regime resembling Earth’s tropics, with weak horizontal temperature gradients. A general overview of how Titan’s atmosphere responds to seasonal forcing is provided by estimating a number of climate-related timescales. Titan lacks a global ocean, but methane is cold-trapped at the poles in large seas, and models indicate that weak baroclinic storms form at the boundary of Titan’s wet and dry regions. Titan’s saturated troposphere is a substantial reservoir of methane, supplied by deep convection from the summer poles. A significant seasonal cycle, first revealed by observations of clouds, causes Titan’s convergence zone to migrate deep into the summer hemispheres, but its connection to polar convection remains undetermined. Models suggest that downwelling of air at the winter pole communicates upper-level radiative cooling, reducing the stability of the middle troposphere and priming the atmosphere for spring and summer storms when sunlight returns to Titan’s lakes. Despite great gains in our understanding of Titan, many challenges remain. The greatest mystery is how Titan is able to retain an abundance of atmospheric methane with only limited surface liquids, while methane is being irreversibly destroyed by photochemistry. A related mystery is how Titan is able to hide all the ethane that is produced in this process. Future studies will need to consider the interactions between Titan’s atmosphere, surface, and subsurface in order to make further progress in understanding Titan’s complex climate system.

Other papers

Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project (Labe et al. 2016)

Drylands extent and environmental issues. A global approach (Pravalie, 2016)

Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System? (Way et al. 2016)

Royal Navy logbooks as secondary sources and their use in climatic investigations: introducing the log-board (Norrgård, 2016)

Flight paths of seabirds soaring over the ocean surface enable measurement of fine-scale wind speed and direction (Yonehara et al. 2016)

Climatology of cold season lake-effect cloud bands for the North American Great Lakes (Laird et al. 2016)

Homogenization and assessment of observed near-surface wind speed trends across Sweden, 1956-2013 (Minola, Azorin-Molina & Chen, 2016)

Objective identification of multiple large fire climatologies: an application to a Mediterranean ecosystem (Ruffault et al. 2016)

Extension of summer climatic conditions into spring in the Western Mediterranean area (Jansa et al. 2016)

Homogenized Variability of Radiosonde Derived Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height over the Global Land Surface from 1973 to 2014 (Wang & Wang, 2016)

ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the historical marine climate record (Freeman et al. 2016)

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